Sponsor(s): Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences；Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies
24 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 19, 2018
Scientia Agricultura Sinica, the 1st in Comprehensive Agricultural Science, is supervised by Ministry of Agriculture of PRC, and sponsored by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, launched in 1960, is a leading peer-reviewed and mufti-disciplinary journal and published semi-monthly in Chinese with English title, abstract, figures, tables and references. It aims to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide. The scope covers Crop Genetics, Breeding, Germplasm Resources; Physiology, Biochemistry, Cultivation, Tillage Plant Protection; Soil & Fertilization, Agro-Ecology & Environment, Bio-energy; Animal Science, Veterinary Science, Agricultural Information Science; Food Science; Agricultural Economics and Management; Agricultural Sustainability. The journal is included in JST, CA and CSCD.
Editor-in-Chief Wan Jianmin Associate Editor-in-Chief Zou Ruicang Tang HuaJun Wu Kongming Guo YuYuan Geng Xu Sun Tan Executive Editor Lu Wenru
The Degradation of Typical Antibiotics and Their Effects on Soil Bacterial Diversity in Spinach Soil
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] To provide an efficiently and eco-friendly solution for elimination of antibiotics in the soils and find a foundation for the evaluation of antibiotics contaminated land, this study was carried out about the residue of antibiotics in soils and their impacts on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial community. [Method] In this study, two types of antibiotics (gentamicin and tylosin) and two antibiotic-degrading microbe (a fungus named Aspergillus Terreus FZC3 to degrading gentamicin, a bacterium named Achromobacter to degrading tylosin) were selected to mix in spinach-growing soil. There were seven treatments in total, including gentamicin (CG), gentamicin and FZC3 (CGF), tylosin (CT), tylosin and Achromobacter (CTW), two antibiotics (CM), two antibiotics and their degrading microbe (CMM), and blank control (CC). Solid phase extraction and HPLC-MS/MS technology were employed to study the impacts of degrading-microbe on antibiotics. The interactive influences of antibiotics and their degrading-microbe on soil bacterial community were studied by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technologies. [Result] Antibiotic-degrading microbe could improve the removal of the two antibiotics in the soil, but as time went by, the differences in the residual rates of antibiotics among all the treatments gradually minimized. During the entire test period, the differences of antibiotics residual rates between treatments were the most significant in the first week. Under the CMM treatment, which spiked with two antibiotics and their degrading microbe, the residual rate of gentamicin was the lowest (53.93%). Under the CTW treatment, which only spiked tylosin and Achromobacter, the residual rate of tylosin was as low as 3.92%. In the first week, the residual rate of gentamicin under the CGF treatment (spiked with gentamicin and FZC3) decreased about 3.3% compared with the CG treatment (spiked with gentamicin), and the residual rate of tylosin under the CTW treatment decreased about 4.1% compared with the CT treatment (spiked with tylosin). According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, there were significant differences ( P < 0.05) between the bacterial richness and diversity in the three treatments of CG, CTW and CMM, compared with CC. Comparing the samples of the first week, the relative abundance of Massilia, Bacillus and etc. under the CG treatment was significantly lower than that in CC treatment; the relative abundance of Massilia in CT treatment was significantly lower than that in the CC treatment; but the decrease of inhibitory effects of antibiotics on these bacteria in the second week, indicating that gentamicin and tylosin in the early period of pot experiment had a greater impact on the soil bacterial communities. The bacterial community structure under the CGF treatment was similar to that under the CC treatment within the fortnight, indicating that the gentamicin-degrading fungus FZC3 could alleviate the inhibitory effects of gentamicin on bacteria. In contrast with CT treatment, the relative abundance of Achromobacter was significantly increased while other genus decreased under the CTW treatment, indicating that the tylosin-degrading bacteria had a greater impact on the bacterial community structure. There was no significant difference in bacterial richness, diversity and community structure within fortnight between CC treatment and CM treatment (spiked with two antibiotics), indicating that there might be an antagonistic effect in soil bacteria when gentamicin and tylosin were added simultaneously. [Conclusion] The residues of gentamicin and tylosin in soil had different degrees of influence on bacterial abundance, diversity, and structure in soils. The addition of exogenous antibiotic-degrading microbe would not only speed up the removal efficiency of the two antibiotics, but also alleviate the effect of antibiotics on soil bacterial communities to some extent.
Arabinoxylan Feruloyl Transferase Gene Cloning and Development of Functional Markers in Common Wheat
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] The arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase (AFT) gene was cloned from wheat, and the functional markers linked to the content of FAX were developed to improve the accuracy of predicting the content of FAX, in order to provide the basis for the improvement of wheat processing quality. [Method] The complete gDNA sequence of wheat FAX gene was obtained by homologous cloning method, using FR846233 as a probe. The sequence differences between high and low FAX content varieties were compared by the DNAMAN software; based on sequence difference, specific primers were designed with Primer 5.0 software to develop functional markers closely linked to FAX content and a set of Chinese spring Nullisomic-tetrasomic lines and ditelosomic lines 3AS, and 3AL were used for chromosome physical mapping; and the practicability of functional markers was verified by using 253 wheat varieties (lines) from the main winter wheat regions in China, combined with the method of PCR verification. IBM SPSS statistics 19.0 software was used to analyze the correlation between FAX content and genotypes. [Result] Two pairs of specific primers B1 and B2 finally amplified the fragments of 800 bp and 710 bp, respectively. And 80 bp overlaps of PCR fragments amplified by B1 and B2 were spliced to obtain the AFT gene that was located on chromosome 3A. The TaBahd-A1 sequence consisted of 1 429 base pairs and allelic variants TaBahd-A1a and TaBahd-A1b were obtained. The two allelic variants possessed a 1 266 bp open reading frame, two exons and one intron. The introns conformed to the typical GT-AG structure. The similarity between the alleles was 98.08%, with 24 SNPs and 3 InDels, which could encode 421 amino acid residues and the predicted molecular weight was 45.2 kDa. Two complementary dominant markers AFTA2 and AFTB2 were developed based on the 107 bp SNP. AFTA2 was able to amplify a 692 bp fragment in the TaBahd-A1a material, which was associated with a high FAX content, but not in the material with TaBahd-A1b allelic variation. AFTB2 could only amplify a 438 bp fragment in TaBahd-A1b type material and correlate with low FAX content, but not in TaBahd-A1a type material, and AFTA2 and AFTB2 were located in 3AL chromosome of wheat by a set of Chinese spring Nullisomic-tetrasomic lines. Using the functional markers AFTA2 and AFTB2 to detect 253 Chinese winter wheat materials, the results showed that the difference in FAX content of different genotypes reached a significant level ( P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in FAX content in Northern China Plain Winter Wheat Region; but in the Huang-Huai River Valley Winter Wheat Region, The FAX content of the TaBahd-A1a-containing variety was significantly higher than that of the TaBahd-A1b-containing variety ( P < 0.05). Therefore, the complementary dominant markers AFTA2 and AFTB2 are related to FAX content and can be effectively used for genetic improvement of FAX content. The frequency of TaBahd-A1 allele variation indicates that TaBahd-A1a is an excellent allelic variant associated with high FAX content, and the frequency of TaBahd-A1a in the Northern China Plain Winter Wheat Region (71.3%) is significantly higher than that in the Huang-Huai River Valley Winter Wheat Region (60.2%). [Conclusion] The results suggest that these two STS markers are closely related to the FAX content related gene and can be used for the improvement of wheat processing quality for wheat-based products.
Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Milk Production Traits and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Holstein Cows in Beijing Area
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] The experiment was conducted to study the effects of cold and heat stress on milk production traits and blood biochemical parameters of Holstein cows, and to evaluate the potential blood biochemical parameters to discriminate the temperature stress response, so as to provide theoretical basis for managing and selecting the resistant individuals of Holstein cows in Beijing area. [Method] In current study, Holstein cows in Sanyuan dairy farm were selected as experimental animals, the temperature-humidity index (THI) of cowshed was continuously monitored, and their milk production data and blood samples used for the detection of blood biochemical parameters were collected in August 2014 (heat stress, N = 178), November 2014 (non-stress, N = 120) and January 2015 (cold stress, N = 126), respectively. The changes of 7 milk production traits and 14 blood biochemical parameters induced by cold or heat stress were evaluated by MIXED models of SAS9.2 computer program, and Logistic analysis was used to analyze the accuracy of blood biochemical indicators which significantly changed under heat or cold stress in identification of temperature stress. [Results] Our results showed 1) in August 2014, the average temperature stood at 31.80 °C and the average THI reached 81.57 of Sanyuan dairy farm. It also should be noted that there were 21 days with THI greater than 78 for more than 8 hours in this month. These data indicated Chinese Holstein cows in Beijing suffered danger heat stress during August. In whole November 2014, with respect to conditions of average temperature with 12.76 °C and average THI only in 55.43, it displayed that there was no thermal stress in this month. While in January 2015, the mean of temperature was −6.70 °C and the average THI was 25.63, and a total of 21 days temperature difference were beyond 12 °C. It showed that Chinese Holstein cows were under a mild cold stress in January; 2) in response to heat stress, the average milk yield of 7 days (AMY) of Chinese Holstein cows dropped by 1.34 kg, and significant decrease was found in FP, PP, F/P, SP ( P < 0.01) and LP ( P < 0.05), but significant increase in SCS (P = 0.01) in milk. And heat stress significantly increased the concentrations of serum GH, LD, PRL and SOD in blood ( P < 0.01), but decreased the concentrations of BUN, CRP, LDH, LPO, NE and K + ( P < 0.01). Among above 10 blood biochemical parameters changed under heat stress, the AUCs of PRL, GH and CRP based on ROC curve analysis were greater than 0.80 with the values in 0.91, 0.85 and 0.83, respectively; 3) in response to cold stress, the AMY of Chinese Holstein cows declined by 1.13 kg, and the FP and SP significantly decreased ( P < 0.01) as well as F/P ( P < 0.05), but the SCS significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in milk. Significantly higher concentrations of serum COR, CORT and K + in experimental cows appeared in cold stress than non-stress ( P < 0.01), but opposite changes for DA, GH, LDH, PRL and SOD ( P < 0.01), and ATCH ( P < 0.05). Using ROC curve analysis, the AUC of SOD showed greater than 0.8 with value in 0.84. [Conclusion] These results revealed that the Holstein cows in Beijing area were undergoing severe temperature stress in August and January. Furthermore, heat and cold stress had damaging effects on milk production traits and physiological condition of Holstein cows in Beijing. The PRL and GH might be used as candidates for evaluation of heat stress and SOD for cold stress in the early period of Holstein cows.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] The study was to investigate the effects of different maturation periods on the quality of not from concentrate (NFC) apple juices, and to clarify the differences of physicochemical properties in NFC juices, in order to provide theoretical basis for juice industry. [Method] The NFC juices of twenty-two varieties from different maturation periods were prepared by squeezing, inactivating enzymes, pasteurization and hot filling. By determining their physicochemical properties including the total soluble solids (TSS) content, pH, titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA, turbidity, color quality and polyphenol constituents, the property differences among these juices were evaluated by variance analysis. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to classify twenty-two juices so as to illuminate the differences in physicochemical properties of NFC juices. [Result] The total soluble solids content of all NFC juices increased with the extended maturation period, and the pH in early and early-medium and medium mature varieties were relatively lower than those of medium-late and late mature varieties, as suggested by the analysis of physicochemical properties. The results of PCA showed that the NFC juices of early maturity and early-medium and medium maturity could be split in the same category, featuring the low contents of TSS. Additionally, the NFC juices of medium-late and late maturity were intersected on PCA score chart. ‘Yuhuazaofu’, ‘Jonathan’ ‘Delicious’, ‘Starkrimson’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Nagafu 2’ and ‘Indo’ constituted the group with the characteristic of low TSS/TA and high content of TA, indicating the sour taste. And ‘Qinhong’, ‘Jiguan’, ‘Newworld’, ‘Qinguan’ and ‘Pink lady’ formed the same group which was characterized by high brightness and turbidity. ‘Huali’ and ‘Hanfu’ were the same group with high TSS content and relatively low pH and TSS/TA. With the similar results of PCA, LDA implied that early maturity and early-medium and part medium maturity NFC juices showed the close physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, no significant difference between medium-late and late maturity was observed. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis demonstrated that the NFC apple juices predominantly possessed chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The NFC juices from 22 varieties had the same individual polyphenol components but different contents ( P < 0.05). [Conclusion] The NFC juices of early maturity and early-medium and medium maturity were different in the physicochemical properties compared with the varieties of medium-late and late maturity. Thus, maturity should be taken into consideration as a primary index when producing NFC apple juices.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] The Fusarium wilt disease caused by continuous cropping is one of the main factors limiting the production of watermelon in recent years. Field observation shows that the tetraploid watermelon seedling is more resistant to Fusarium wilt disease than the diploid watermelon seedling. The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in tetraploid watermelon seedlings by comparing the resistance differences between diploid and tetraploid watermelon seedlings, and to provide a theoretical basis for breeding the disease-resistant polyploid watermelon. [Method] The resistance of diploid and autotetraploid watermelon seedlings to Fusarium wilt was compared after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 1 (Fon 1) at one-leaf stage. Fon 1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to observe the colonization process in the watermelon seedlings of different ploidies. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenols, and flavonoids, and the expression levels of PR3, MPK7, PAL, and MYB in the roots of diploid and tetraploid watermelon seedlings at different stages were determined. [Result] After inoculation with Fon 1, for the diploid watermelon seedlings, the symptoms of Fusarium wilt appeared on the 4th day, and most of the plants died on the 10th day, while for the tetraploid watermelon seedlings, the disease was observed on the 7th day, and most of plants died on the 13th day. The wilt symptoms appeared 3 days later in the tetraploid watermelon seedlings which were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt than diploid ones. The colonization pathway of Fon 1 was the same in both diploid and tetraploid watermelon seedlings. In addition, there was no significant difference in the germination rate of conidia between diploid and tetraploid watermelon roots. However, the colonization of Fon 1 in tetraploid seedlings was obviously slower and the intercellular hyphae were fewer than those in diploid ones. The colonization rate of Fon 1 in the xylem of tetraploid watermelon seedlings was lower than that in diploid plants, which showed significant differences in the roots and petiole, which meant that the expansion of the pathogen in the stems and leaves of tetraploid plants was limited to a certain extent. The colonization process of Fon 1 in the tetraploid watermelon seedlings apparently lagged, which coincided with the disease symptoms. After inoculation with Fon 1, the activities of POD and PAL increased, and the increase in POD activity of the tetraploid watermelon seedlings was larger than that of the diploid watermelon seedlings. Tetraploid roots produced more POD and PAL to enhance the plant disease resistance and protect cells from damage. The increases in the total phenol and flavonoid contents in the tetraploid watermelon roots were higher than those in diploid ones. These secondary metabolites made tetraploid plants resistant to the invasion of Fon 1. In addition, the content of MDA in the root of tetraploid watermelon seedlings was obviously lower than that in the root of diploid watermelon seedlings, which indicated that the damage degree of root cell membrane of tetraploid watermelon seedlings was lower than that of diploid watermelon seedlings after inoculation with Fon 1. The expression level of PR3 in the tetraploid watermelon root increased continuously after inoculation with Fon 1 and reached the highest level on the 10th day, which was 10 times that in diploid watermelon roots at the same time. At the late stage of inoculation, tetraploid roots exhibited higher expression level of MPK7 to transmit resistance signals, which promoted the expression of disease resistance genes to reduce the damage of Fon 1 on watermelon seedlings. The expression level of PAL in tetraploids increased firstly and then decreased, being higher than that in diploids at the same time, and the maximum expression level was 6 times that in diploids. The expression level of MYB in tetraploid watermelon roots was higher than that in diploid watermelon roots, which was 80 and 35 times of that in the diploid on the 7th and 10th days post inoculation with Fon 1. [Conclusion] Based on the inoculation and identification of Fon 1 at the seedling stage, observation of pathogen colonization process, changes in metabolite content and gene expression level, we conclude that the tetraploid watermelon seedlings are more resistant to Fusarium wilt than the diploid watermelon seedlings.
Enhanced Effect of Mulching with the Same Plastic Film for Two Years with Reduced Tillage on Grain Yield Formation of Wheat Rotation Under Reduced Irrigation and N Application
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 19
[Objective] Continuous cropping is normally employed for maize cultivation with plastic film mulching in arid oasis irrigation areas. The low resources use efficiency and residual film pollution usually result from unreasonable management of irrigation/N application and a single planting pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine the enhanced effect of mulching with the same plastic film for two years in combination with reduced tillage on grain formation of wheat with reduced irrigation and N application, so as to provide a theoretical basis for exploiting the planting pattern with low resources input and great resources use efficiency. [Method] A field experiment was conducted at Zhuwangpu Town, Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province in 2016 and 2017. Two tillage patterns were designed as wheat planted with mulching with the same plastic film for two years and reduced tillage in the preceding fall (RT) and wheat strip planted with conventional tillage and without mulching (CT). Wheat was grown under two irrigation levels [80% of traditional irrigation amount (I 1), traditional irrigation amount (I 2)] and three nitrogen levels [60% of traditional nitrogen application amount (N 1), 80% of traditional nitrogen application amount (N 2), and traditional nitrogen application amount (N 3)]. [Result] The growth and yield of wheat showed no significant difference between 2016 and 2017. RT increased the growth rate of wheat by 8.5% at jointing and 9.0% from booting to flowering compared with that of CT. The growth rate of wheat was not significantly different between different irrigation levels or nitrogen application levels, respectively, at each growth stage. The average leaf area index (LAI) of RT was 13.9% higher than that of CT. However, the average LAI of I 1 decreased by 12.2% compared with that of I 2. In addition, the LAI of wheat was also affected by the nitrogen application level. Specifically, the LAI of N 1 decreased by 13.3% compared with that of N 2, and the LAI of N 2 decreased by 9.5% compared with that of N 3. Under I 1 level, RT increased the grain yield of wheat by 9.1% in comparison to CT. RTI 1N 2 achieved the greatest grain yield of 7 168 kg·hm −2 in 2016 and 7 537 kg·hm −2 in 2017. The biomass yield decreased and the harvest index increased under reduced irrigation and nitrogen application. The harvest index of I 1 increased by 10.7% compared with that of I 2. N 1 and N 2 had the harvest index 9.2% and 7.1% higher than that of N 3, respectively. Under I 1 level, the amount and contribution of matters from photosynthetic products to grains after flowering under RT increased by 26.2% and 4.9% compared with those under CT, respectively. The significant difference in the amount from photosynthetic products to grains between N2 and N3 was not observed. Yield components and the path analysis indicated that improving grain weight via increasing LAI supported the accumulation of photosynthetic products and the translocation to grains for achieving a high yield. [Conclusion] RT improved wheat grain yields at I 1 and N 2 levels. It is therefore suggested that in arid oasis irrigation areas, RTI 1N 2 is one of effective cultivation patterns for the integrated measures with the reduced amounts of water, nitrogen, and plastic film resources.