Sponsor(s): Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences；Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies
24 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 05, 2018
Scientia Agricultura Sinica, the 1st in Comprehensive Agricultural Science, is supervised by Ministry of Agriculture of PRC, and sponsored by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, launched in 1960, is a leading peer-reviewed and mufti-disciplinary journal and published semi-monthly in Chinese with English title, abstract, figures, tables and references. It aims to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide. The scope covers Crop Genetics, Breeding, Germplasm Resources; Physiology, Biochemistry, Cultivation, Tillage Plant Protection; Soil & Fertilization, Agro-Ecology & Environment, Bio-energy; Animal Science, Veterinary Science, Agricultural Information Science; Food Science; Agricultural Economics and Management; Agricultural Sustainability. The journal is included in JST, CA and CSCD.
Editor-in-Chief Wan Jianmin Associate Editor-in-Chief Zou Ruicang Tang HuaJun Wu Kongming Guo YuYuan Geng Xu Sun Tan Executive Editor Lu Wenru
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 05
[Objective] The objective of this study is to clone and clarity odorant-binding protein gene in the leafminer ( Liriomyza sativae), analyze the sequence properties, gene expression, phylogeny and protein function, which will provide a basis for further study of the olfactory mechanism.[Method] The whole coding region of OBP gene from L. sativae was cloned by PCR strategy. Nucleotide sequence was analyzed using DNAMAN and homology comparison was analyzed using BLAST. An evolutionary tree was constructed by MEGA 6.0 to analyze phylogeny. The expression situation of LsatOBP13 in different tissues was assayed by the real-time quantitative PCR. Prokaryotic expression vector was constructed and then the recombinant protein was expressed and purified. The excitation wavelength of the fluorescence spectrophotometer was 337 nm and the 1-NPN was used as fluorescent probe to study the binding properties of OBP13 with 25 different odor ligands. The distribution of LsatOBP13 was localized by the indirect immuno-fluorescent staining and specific polyclonal antibody which was already prepared. The antenna of L. sativae was embedded, sliced up, and observed under laser scanning confocal microscope to study the subcellular distribution of OBP13. [Result] An OBP gene in L. sativae was obtained and named as LsatOBP13 (GenBank accession number: KT250751). The full length of LsatOBP13 coding region is 462 bp that encodes a putative protein of 153 amino acids with a molecular mass of 17.80 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.75, and the deduced amino acid sequence possesses a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acid residues at the N terminus. There are four conserved cysteine sites in the protein sequence, so LsatOBP13 is a Minus-C OBP. The phylogenetic analysis showed that OBP13 and CcapOBP99a-like clustered into one branch and had a high homology. The expression level of LsatOBP13 in antenna was much higher than those in other tissues. The recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed and the recombinant protein of high purity was obtained. LsatOBP13 had good binding capacities with trans-2-hexenal, linalool, 1-octen-3-ol, α-ionone, benzothiazole, and β-ionone, and the dissociation constants were 12.592, 10.995, 11.165, 11.224, 10.336, 9.218 μmol·L −1, respectively. In these six odor ligands, the affinity of β-ionone was the strongest. The immunofluorescence localization showed that this protein was mainly located in trichoid sensilla and basiconic sensilla on the crosscut flagellum section, and also in the olfactory pit and the joint of arista and funicular section. [Conclusion] LsatOBP13 is a Minus-C OBP which belongs to the atypical OBPs. The expression situation, odorant-binding characteristic, and immunofluorescence localization showed that OBP13 existed mainly in the antenna of L. sativae and involved in the recognition process of odors in green leaf plants. It is presumed that it plays a role in olfactory recognition and host plant location of L. sativae.
Response and Driving Factors of Bacterial and Fungal Community to Long-Term Fertilization in Black Soil
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 05
[Objective] This study was conducted to explore the bacterial and fungal community responses to long-term chemical fertilizer and manure application, and thus to clarify the biological mechanism of fertilization on soil fertility in black soils. It aims to provide a theoretical support for rational application of fertilizer and black soil fertility improvement. [Method] The study was conducted on the long-term fertilization (35 years) experiment at Harbin, China. Soil samples were collected from the following four treatments: non-fertilization control (CK), chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N), manure only (M) and M plus N (MN). Miseq pro-sequencing and qPCR technology were used to find out the differences between bacterial and fungal communities. In combination with soil properties, we analyzed the driving factors for bacterial and fungal community by multivariate statistical analysis. [Result] Compared with CK treatment, N treatment significantly decreased the bacterial diversity and fungal diversity by 13.2%–48.5% and 4.6%–80.3%, respectively, while the fungal abundance was increased by 24 times. Applied manure to N fertilization enhanced the bacterial abundance and bacterial diversity by 2 times and 7.7%–46.6%, respectively. However, the fungal quantity was declined by 14.2% and the fungal diversity was increased by 62%–237%, comparing MN with N. In comparison with CK, the abundance of Acidobacteria _Gp1, Gp3 and α-Proteobacteria (bacterial classes) was significantly increased, and Agaricomycetes (fungal class) even was enhanced by 41 times with the addition of N. Compared with N treatment, the bacterial abundance kept constant for MN treatment, while the abundance of α-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria _Gp1 and Gp3 was decreased, and Acidobacteria _Gp4, Gp6 and Plancomycetes were increased for M treatment. The bacterial community structure for MN and N treatments appeared similar, which was significantly different from CK and M treatments. The fungal community structure for CK, M and MN treatments was similar and significantly different from N treatment. Soil pH (6.07) and available potassium (125.5 g·kg −1) were the principal factors for the difference of bacterial community and fungal community, respectively. Soil organic matter explained both bacterial and fungal community structure alternations while the criteria was different as 28.4 g·kg −1 for bacteria and 30.8 g·kg −1 for fungi. [Conclusion] Therefore, our results indicate that bacteria was sensitive to manure, and fungi was sensitive to N fertilizer application. Long-term N application stimulated the growth of acidophilic microbe, while addition of manure to N enhanced microbial diversity and promoted the growth of beneficial microorganism. Soil pH and available potassium were the principal factors driving the bacterial and fungal community structure, respectively. Further detailed study is required on this aspect for the improvement of black soil quality.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 05
Abstract: [Objective] Plant morphological traits are the basis of ideotype-based maize breeding which are closely related to photosynthetic efficiency, lodging resistance and grain yields. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 558 629 SNPs with genome-wide coverage was used to elucidate the genetic basis of six plant morphological traits, including total number of leaves (LN), leaf number above ear (LNAN), the ratio of LNAN to LN (LNAN/LN), plant height (PH), ear height (EH) and the ratio of EH to PH (EH/PH), which could provide theoretical basis for enhancing ideotype-based maize breeding and facilitating the genetic improvement of new maize varieties with high plant density and lodging resistance. [Method] In this study, a representative panel of 284 inbred lines planted in Zhengzhou and Xunxian, including temperate, subtropical and tropical materials, was used for association mapping. [Result] All traits measured in the two locations exhibited an approximately normal distribution. Highly positive or negative correlations between pairwise traits were observed. The variance analysis of these traits indicated that significant variations were observed across environment, genotype and the genotype × environment interaction. When testing with the optimal GWAS model, we found that Q model showed high type I errors (false positive), while Q + K model was too strict in reducing false positive. K model was the best in reducing false positive. Totally, 56 significant SNP-trait associations involving in 17 loci were identified for five traits ( P ≤ 3.99E−6), and each locus could explain phenotypic variation of 7.97%–10.56%. Moreover, four loci were detected in both environments, indicating that these four loci were less affected by environment and were stable in different environments. All potential candidate genes and their annotations within 100 kb (50 kb upstream and downstream the lead SNP) of the loci were identified, and a total of 80 candidate genes were found, including 42 genes that had functional annotations. For example, the gene GRMZM2G161293 encoding a protein that had acetylgluco-saminyl transferase was associated with PH and EH. It catalyzed the transfer of the amino group from N-acetyl glucosamine to glucose, which may improve yield by influencing the content of soluble sugars in maize kernels. [Conclusion] The results indicated that K model having the best result in reducing the type I errors (false positive). Based on K model, a total of 17 loci associated with plant morphological traits were identified.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 05
[Objective] Green-center is an important ornamental trait of spray cut chrysanthemum, and the study of heterosis and genetic basis of green-center trait will provide invaluable guidance for breeding program of spray cut chrysanthemum with green-center. [Method] In this study, inheritance and heterosis analyses were carried out for three green-center traits of spray cut chrysanthemum, i.e., the score of inflorescence center color (referred to as the inflorescence center color value, the same as below), the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green, respectively. They were based on the phenotypic data of 81 individuals of F 1 population derived from the cross between yellow-center chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Nannongfengshou’ (female parent) and green-center chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Nannonghongxia’ (male parent), and 70 individuals of F 1 population derived from the cross between green-center chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Nannonghongyun’ (female parent) and green-center chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Nannongxiaoqingxin’ (male parent) by using the single generation segregation analysis method of major gene plus polygene mixed genetic model. [Result] The coefficient of variation of the two F 1 hybrids ranged from 24.88% to 90.76%. The variation degree of Cross Combination I (yellow-center × green-center) was generally higher than that of Cross Combination II (green-center × green-center), but the average of Cross Combination II was generally better than that of Cross Combination I. In addition, the predominance of the inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green from Cross Combination I were −0.14, −3.42, and 0.11, respectively. The period of inflorescence center keeping green was positive, whereas the other indicators of heterosis were negative. The predominance of the inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green from Cross Combination II were −0.11, −10.61, and −1.02, respectively. The over-parent heterosis of the period of inflorescence center keeping green was −0.52, which was worse than those of parents. There were positive and negative super-individuals in the two populations. The green inflorescence center colors of F 1 in Cross Combinations I and II were 3.70% and 2.86%, respectively. The paternal flower color and the color which was one level lower than the maternal flower color accounted for a similar proportion in the offspring and the proportion was more than 20.00%. The inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green were controlled by two pairs of major genes. The inflorescence center color value showed the negative effect, whereas the other two indicators showed positive effects. Furthermore, the heritability of the major genes of inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green were 98.64%–98.83%, 95.04%–96.54%, and 66.73%–92.52%, respectively. Finally, there were significantly positive correlations among the inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green. [Conclusion] The heterosis and transgressive segregation of inflorescence traits commonly existed in F 1 hybrids of chrysanthemum, so we could choose the individuals that were beneficial to the breeding. The genetic potential of the green inflorescence center color was weak, and we chose the cultivars as pollen donors in order to increase the numbers of green-center offspring. In addition, the heritability of the inflorescence center color value, the green-center relative area, and the period of inflorescence center keeping green was high, which was suitable for the selection in early generation. Finally, the positive correlations among the indicators were useful to the green-center chrysanthemum breeding.