Sponsored by Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (IPLE-CASS)
ISSN 1000-7881 CN 11-1043/C
6 issues per year
Discipline(s): Sociology & Demography
Current Issue: Issue 06, 2018
Chinese Journal of Population Science, sponsored by Institute of Population and Labor Economics at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (IPLE-CASS), has published a large number of influential and high quality theory papers, reflects the latest academic research in the field of population and labor and interdisciplinary timely. It is a good way for people to understand the demographic development and provides theoretical information and countermeasures for the state and government decision-making departments. Chinese Journal of Population Science prefers research papers, reviews and surveys with high quality in the field of population and related fields. The contents include population theory and policy research, population statistics, population and economy, human resources and labor economy, social security research, population and society, international comparison of population, population and ecological environment, ethnic minority population and family planning theory and practice, etc.
To develop mixed-ownership economy and to improve employees’ education are the two important strategies for socioeconomic development in recent years. Whether these two strategies interact with each other? Will employees’ education of state-owned enterprises be affected by the mixed ownership reform? If so, which industries or fields will be more affected? This paper calculates the market power of each firm, and then examines the interaction of mixed ownership reform and market power on investment in employees’ education. The results show that, there is a significant “catfish effect” in employees’ education for mixed ownership enterprises. Only when the market power (monopoly) is relatively weak and the market competition is relatively fierce can the mixed ownership reform release certain policy dividends and enhance the enthusiasm of employees’ education. However, for the state-owned enterprises with stronger market power, the reform shows some policy uncertainties which weaken their investment in employees’ education. Hence, it is imperative to establish a top-level design that takes the interaction between the two policies into account.
Labor substitution effect of artificial intelligence in the era of population aging: evidence from panel data across countries and panel data at provincial level in China
Based on panel data across countries and panel data at provincial level in China, this study explores how population aging induces the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and how the application of AI affects economic growth with the two-stage least squares model. It investigates whether the application of AI substitutes labor force, and if yes, how such a substitution effect works. The results show that, the shortage of labor force caused by population aging would push an economy to apply more AI in production. Population aging is conductive to the development of AI. The application of AI has positive effects on local gross production and hence partially offsets the negative impact of population aging on economic growth. AI plays an important role in reacting to population aging. The development of AI is induced innovation driven by population aging, thus it is the complementary substitution for labor force rather than the crowding-out substitution. With these mechanisms, AI is expected to contribute greatly to the economy in the era of population aging.
On the premise of complete stage division and comparable statistical scope, this paper conducts a historical investigation on the evolution of labor income share in the UK, the United States, France, Germany and Japan from the middle or late eighteenth century to the early twenty-first century, and it explains the differences or contradictions between the commonly believed descent hypothesis, stability hypothesis, U-shaped hypothesis and cubic hypothesis. The research finds that (1) the changing track of labor income share in the process of industrialization was like the spoon curve. In the early stage of industrialization, the labor share first decreased, and then it experienced a remarkable recovery in the middle stage of industrialization. Then, labor share remained relatively stable before a slight decline in the post-industrial stage. (2) Viewing the share of labor income as the “cheese” of laborers, the “cheese” loss in the early stage of industrialization could be recovered during the middle and late stages. This paper suggests that it is more important and urgent for China to grasp the time-bound window of opportunity to promote labor share in the middle and late stages of industrialization.
Using censuses data, this paper focuses on the mortality level and pattern of China’s unmarried male adults in the context of population sex imbalance. Our research findings show that there is a significant difference in mortality between married and unmarried male adults. Compared with married males, the unmarried ones have higher death risks and larger disparities in their life expectancy. The life expectancy at the age of 30 is 7.6-year lower for the unmarried men as compared with the married. The rural unmarried male adults constitute “the most vulnerable group” due to the socio-economic disparities between rural and urban areas and unmarried status. Among the unmarried male adults, mortality differs significantly by education level, and the educational difference is severer than that exemplified by marital status or residence type. The study concludes that while it is less feasible to reverse the sex imbalance in the short term, developing education may be more effective to mitigate the excess mortality of China’s unmarried male adults.
Based on data of the national sample survey of floating population in 2014, this paper compares the social distances between floating population and local urban residents from the perspectives of urban-rural and regional double segmentation. The findings of the study are as follows. (1) the social distance differs significantly between various groups of floating population and urban residents. This is especially severer between provincial rural migrants and urban residents. (2) The regional segmentation is significantly greater than the urban-rural segmentation regarding the social distance between migrants and urban residents. (3) The urban-rural and regional double segmentation has a superimposed effect on the social distance between the floating population and urban residents. (4) The higher socioeconomic status and social participation help the floating population to narrow down their social distance from the urban residents. In order to promote the social integration of the floating population in the urban areas, it is vital to promote reforms of the dual social system related with the household registration system, enhance the regional inclusiveness, improve public services for the floating population, and to speed up the citizenization of floating population.
Based on the data of 17 OECD countries from 1960 to 2016, this paper examined the trajectories of population size, population quality, age structure and distribution. And it explored the impact of population changes on economic development, industrial structure and development quality by using panel-corrected standard errors and feasible generalized least squares. The result shows that, given the population size and quality fixed, the population growth rate has negative impacts on economic growth and the quality of economic development. The migration rate contributes positively to economic growth and the quality of economic development, although it restrains the change of economic structure. An increase in working-age population has a positive impact on economic growth, economic structure adjustment, and development quality. Likewise, population aging promotes the adjustment of industrial structure. The improvement of education has a significantly positive impact on economic growth and development quality. The increase of life expectancy promotes the vigorous development of service industry. In addition, population agglomeration and migration accelerate the economic growth, enhance the quality of economic development, and promote the change of economic development mode in general. The paper points out that the impact of population on economic development results from all demographic aspects.