Sponsor(s): Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 12, 2019
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese Univ
Adaptive time management: The effects of death awareness on time perception and intertemporal choice
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2019,Vol 51,No. 12
Death awareness refers to thinking about and the recognition of the inevitability of personal death. As a critical component of the human-unique ability of autonoetic consciousness, death awareness can be viewed as a cognitive adaptation for time management. We hypothesize that activating death awareness may affect intertemporal choice, in which people make tradeoffs between rewards across different time points. Such effects of death awareness on intertemporal choice may be mediated by time perception, a subjective assessment of the speed of time passage. In this research, we investigate the impact of death awareness on time perception and intertemporal choice, and the relationships among them. Study 1 examined the relationship between death awareness and time estimation. Eighty-three college students were randomly assigned to either a death awareness activation group where mortality was made salient to the participants or a control group where the participants imagined their toothache experience. After a word-search distraction task, the participants in both groups completed a time duration (400 ms, 800 ms, 1 200 ms, 1 600 ms) estimation task. The results showed that the participants in the group of death awareness activation gave significantly shorter estimates than the participants in the control group. Study 2 ( n = 123) extended the measure of time perception to a more extended period and also measured the delay discounting rate of the participants from their intertemporal choices between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward. The participants were randomly assigned to either a death awareness activation group or a toothache awareness activation group. The participants then indicated how long ten years was to them by marking on a line with the statement “10 years is very short” on the left end side of the line and the statement “10 years is very long” on the right end side. The participants in the death-awareness activation group marked the line closer to the left end (“life is short”) than those in the control group. As predicted, the participants in the death-awareness activation group had a lower delay discounting rate and were more future-oriented in making intertemporal choices. Moreover, bootstrapping analysis revealed a partial mediation effect of time duration estimation between death awareness and delay discounting. In conclusion, death awareness serves adaptive functions in time management. Activating death awareness makes people feel that time passes more quickly and promotes future-oriented decisions.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2019,Vol 51,No. 12
Current researchers largely concentrated on the characteristics of the high degree of the generalization of autobiographical memory related to the negative emotion and depression, very few studies investigated the ways to reduce or improve the generalization degree of autobiographical memory. The high degree of generalization of autobiographical memory is a symbol of the occurrence and development of depression. Knowing how to reduce the generalization degree of autobiographical memory in order to alleviate the symptoms and lower the relapse rate of depression is a key research topic that needs to be resolved in psychological counseling and treatment. Based on the previous research, 344 junior high school students have been selected for the experiments. The present study includes three parts: Experiment 1 compared the generalization difference in the autobiographical memory of both the problematic state group and the normal state group, verifying that the positive and negative autobiographical memory scores of the problematic state group were significantly lower than those of the normal state group, and there’s no significant difference in the neutral autobiographical memory score between the two groups. Experiment 2 compared the effects of the two questioning types, namely, solution-focused (SF) and problem-focused (PF), on the generalization of autobiographical memory and proved that the scores of positive, negative and neutral autobiographical memory in the PF group were significantly higher than those in SF group and the control group, but there was no significant difference between the PF group and the control group in all kinds of autobiographical memory scores. A relationship between the questioning type and the autobiographical memory was established, which would be used in the counseling. Experiment 3 further explored the influence of SF questioning on the generalization of autobiographical memory in different attribution styles, and testified that the positive and negative autobiographical memory scores of the internals were significantly higher than those of the externals, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the neutral autobiographical memory score. The result shows that similar to depression and other mental disorders, the degree of autobiographical memory generalization among individuals suffering from general psychological distress is higher; an SF questioning can palliate the generalization of autobiographical memory better than PF questioning. Moreover, SF questioning is conducive to improving the generalization of autobiographical memory in internals suffering from general psychological distress. In short, we can conclude that the questioning type does affect the degree of the generalization of autobiographical memory, which provides a useful attempt for psychological counselors or therapists to reduce the generalization of autobiographical memory in cases.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2019,Vol 51,No. 12
Advice, given or taken, is vital in decision-making processes and social interactions. An individual can either exert one’s influence on others with advice, or use others’ advice to enable effective decision-making. Given the importance of behaviors related to advice, it has become critical for scholars to investigate their antecedents. However, previous studies have focused largely on advice taking rather than advice giving, which is equally vital. To fill this gap, the current study, inspired by eye effects, seeks to explore the relationship between advice-seekers’ gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as the mechanism underlying this relationship. Drawing from Signaling Theory, we examined the effect of advice-seekers’ gaze direction on advisors’ advice giving, as well as the process linking them. We focused on the mediating effect of perceived role expectation and on the moderating effect of rejection sensitivity. Three experiments with different decision making scenarios were conducted to test the hypotheses. The advice-seekers’ gaze direction (direct vs. averted) was manipulated using same images of faces (3 models, 2 males and 1 female) in three experiments. Experiment 1 employed an undergraduate’ career decision-making scenario to examine the direct effect of advice-seekers’ gaze direction on advisors’ willingness of giving advice, as well as the mediating effect of perceived role expectation. A total of 102 university students were recruited for this experiment (39 males; mean age (23.76 ± 4.390 years), and were randomly divided into two groups (direct vs. averted). The experiment 2 adopted a 2 (gaze direction: direct vs. averted) × 2 (rejection sensitivity: high vs. low) between-participant design to examine the moderating effect of rejection sensitivity with an undergraduate’ decision-making scenario in daily study life. A total of 318 undergraduates were recruited (155 males; mean age (21.74 ± 1.49) years). Using the tendency to expect rejection scale(TERS), we deployed 86 participants (35 males) who scored in the top 27% in the high rejection sensitivity group and 86 participants (36 males) who scored in the bottom 27% in the low rejection sensitivity group. The experiment 3 employed a job-related decision making scenario in an organization to examine the full model(a moderated mediation model). A total of 198 full-time employees were recruited (88 males; mean age (31.20 ± 5.06) years). The results of the three experiments showed that: (1) advice-seeker’s gaze direction directly influenced the advisors’ willingness to give advice. When the advice-seeker’s gaze direction was direct rather than averted, advisors were more willing to give advice; (2) perceived role expectation mediated the relationship between advice-seeker’s gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice; (3) advisors’ rejection sensitivity moderated the relationship between advice-seeker’s gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as the indirect relationship of advice seeker’s gaze direction to advisors’ willingness to give advice through perceived role expectation. When the advisor’s rejection sensitivity was high, seeker’s direct gaze direction had a stronger effect on the advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as on the indirect effect mentioned above. These findings contribute to our understandings of how to help advisors to give advice, and add to the research on eye effects as well.