Sponsor(s): Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 12, 2017
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese Univ
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2017,Vol 49,No. 12
Fairness is a comprehensive strategy that takes into consideration of self-interest and other people's interests. The development of fairness norms, that is, using certain rules to distribute resources among different agents, includes two levels: the cognitive level, understanding fairness norms, and the behavioral level, applying fairness rules. Young children endorse fairness norms related to resource distribution, but often act in contradiction to those norms when given a chance to distribute. While currently most research focuses on children's fairness cognition or behavior, the phenomenon of children's fairness cognition-behavior gap and its influence factors have rarely been explored in the context of a single study. Using a novel approach, the present study aims to investigate the gap of fairness cognition and behavior among 4- to 8-year-old children. The research presented here offers clear evidence of this discrepancy and goes on to examine possible explanations for its diminution with age, as well as the impact of social comparison on such resource distribution behavior. Study 1 adopted the Dictator game to examine the equity principle among 105 4- to 8-year-old children's fairness cognition and behavior, and compared the cognition-behavior gap. The justifications/motivations of children's distribution behavior were also coded and analyzed. In Study 2, We replicated the findings in Study 1, that children would take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also found that 5- to 6-year-olds would spitefully take a cost to ensure that another welfare falls below their own. We tested 80 6-year-old children, and analyzed the influence of social comparison on children's distribution behavior, both upward and downward social comparisons considered. A variant of the Dictator game, were used to investigate children's behavior in different conditions. In Study 1, we found that children at this age already have developed fairness understanding, their fair distributive behavior increased with age, and the gap between cognition and behavior decreased with age. Nevertheless, they failed to engage in equal distribution until age 8. Children's interpretations of their behavior showed a significant age-related difference from 4 to 8. As children grew older, their interpretations transitioned from focusing on desire to principle. Study 2 found that the degree of unfairness and the cost had a significant impact on the choice of distribution behavior in both the upward social comparison and downward social comparison. Under the no-cost situation, children were more inclined to avoid their own disadvantage and to favor their own favorable results. In the highly unfair situation, it was necessary to avoid being inferior to others, even if the cost was too high. The present study of children's fairness cognition-behavior gap in a single environment contributes to the literature on moral development. The results provide some support for traditional accounts of moral development by showing that, in the course of development, children's distribution behavior is increasingly consistent with the norm of fairness that they endorse from an early age. These results also suggest that social comparison influences children's distribution behavior, and that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for self-advantage/disadvantaging others.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2017,Vol 49,No. 12
Mobile phones have integrated into people’s daily lives. Proper mobile phone use would help individuals meet diverse needs in learning and shopping, as well as in recreation and communication. However, the problem that more and more people are getting addicted to mobile phones has been salient. Studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction would bring about significant adverse impacts on mental health such as depression, anxiety, and even suicidal ideation. Poor sleep quality is also one of the major undesirable outcomes of mobile phone addiction. Research documented that mobile phone addiction significantly predicted sleep quality, and sleep quality deteriorated with increasing level of mobile phone addiction. Prior studies have focused mainly on the direct association between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality. However, little is known about the underlying mediating mechanism (i.e., how mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality) and moderating mechanism (i.e., when mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality). To address these gaps, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality in adolescents since both the use rate of mobile phone and the occurrence rate of mobile phone addiction are very high among adolescents. Specifically, the present study would examine the mediating role of affect balance in the relation between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality of adolescents, and test whether the direct effect and the indirect effect would be moderated by rumination and mindfulness. A sample of 1 258 high school students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their mobile phone addiction, sleep quality, affect balance, rumination and mindfulness. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and the SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender and grade, mobile phone addiction significantly exerted direct effect on sleep quality and indirect effect on sleep quality through the mediation of affect balance. (2) Both the direct effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality and the indirect effect of affect balance were moderated by rumination, and these two effects were stronger in adolescents with high level of rumination. (3) Both the direct effect and the indirect effect were moderated by mindfulness, and these two effects were weaker in adolescents with high level of mindfulness. The present study highlights the mediating role of affect balance and the moderating role of rumination and mindfulness in the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects as well as its paths and conditions of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality of adolescents. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for protecting and improving affect balance and sleep quality of adolescents in the mobile Internet era.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2017,Vol 49,No. 12
In recent years, researchers have put much focus on the influence of number magnitude and its impact on brands and consumers’ decision making. However, past studies emphasize on number superstition, which cannot provide an integrative explanation on the effect of number magnitude in brand names. In order to close the gap, this research explores how number magnitude in brands impact consumers’ attitudes from an integrative perspective based on the space–time congruity theory. This research proposes that products with big numbers in brand names receive more favorable evaluations than products with small numbers. Last but not least, this research also identifies a boundary condition of the main effect by examining the moderating role of need for cognition. Based on three studies, the authors investigated the influence of number magnitude in brands on consumers’ attitudes. In Study 1, the researchers constructed an integrative model and verified the main effect. Study 2 was conducted by using a 2 (big, small) × 2 (high need for cognition, low need for cognition) between-subjects design to testify the moderating role of need for cognition in the relationship between number magnitude and consumers’ attitudes. Study 3 further examined the theoretical process underlying the main effect by establishing an integrative chain in the causal order of “number magnitude” to “newness perception” to “perceived value” and to “consumers’ attitudes”. The results of the present research are three-fold. To start with, number magnitude in brands will influence consumers’ attitudes. Products with big numbers in brand names receive more favorable evaluations than products with small numbers. Secondly, this research also examined the moderating effect of need for cognition on the relationship between number magnitude and consumers’ attitudes. The results proclaim that the influence of number magnitude in brands is stronger when consumers have low need for cognition (vs. high). This research also verified an integrative model of the proposed hypothesis by constructing a causal chain consisting of number magnitude to newness perception to perceived value to consumers’ attitudes. These findings enrich the theoretical value of alphanumeric brands in three ways. Firstly, it focuses on the influence of number magnitude in brands on consumers’ attitudes, which reconciles conflicting research findings in this field. In doing so, this research not only identifies the boundary conditions of consumers’ attitudes for number magnitude, but also exhibits that this effect is stronger when consumers have low need for cognition (vs. high). In conclusion, this research investigates the influence of number magnitude in brands on consumers’ attitudes and provides feasible guidelines and managerial implications for companies to apply the alphanumeric brand strategy effectively.
Long-term effects of choice of major, social support, learning engagement on college students’ interest in their major
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2017,Vol 49,No. 12
Previous research suggested that about 40% of Chinese undergraduate students report that the majors they are studying are not congruent with their interest. To shed light on the underlying factors and processes that shape college students’ interest in their major, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate whether and how factors including students’ initial choice of major, academic engagement (i.e., critical thinking, and time and study environment management) and social support (i.e., peer relatedness and help seeking from teachers) in the first three years of college would shape students’ interest in their major in the third year of college. A total of 729 freshmen from a comprehensive university with high academic reputation in southern China participated in the study. Totally 633 (305 males and 328 females) of them (87%) continued to participate in the study in the second and third years of college. The sample attrition rate for each year was about 8%. The main reason for the sample attrition was that students were not available at the time of data collection. Students from the same major program completed questionnaires in a group at a specific time in their classroom. Questionnaires were collected in the same procedure by the same experimenter in December of each year. Latent Growth Modeling was used to analyze data. It was found that students’ critical thinking as well as time and study environment management steadily decreased from Year 1 to Year 3 while peer relatedness showed an increasing pattern over the three years. It was also found that the students’ initial choice of their major and a higher level of critical thinking in the first year positively predicted students’ interest in their major in the third year. The slopes of both critical thinking and time and study environment management from Year 1 to Year 3 also showed a positive prediction to students’ interest in their major. That is, students who demonstrated a higher level of critical thinking or were better in time and study environment management from Year 1 to Year 3 were more interested in their major in the third year. Help seeking from teachers in the third year also had a positive contribution to students’ interest in their major. In short, college students’ initial choice of major, critical thinking, time and study environment management, and help seeking from teachers are critical for college students’ interest in their major. College students’ deceasing critical thinking and time and study environment management is worthy of attention for researchers and educators in higher education institutes.