Sponsor(s):Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
LI Shu, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
SHU Hua, School of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Beijing Normal University, China
SU Yanjie, Department of Psychology, Peking University, China
YOU Xuqun, School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, China
ZHANG Jianxin, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
AU Wing Tung, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
BAI Xuejun, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, China
CAI Huajian, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
CHANG Lei, Department of Psychology, University of Macau, China
CHEN Xinyin, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, USA
FU Guoqun, Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, China
FU Shimin, Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, China
GUO Benyu, School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, China
GUO Chunyan, Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, China
GUO Xiuyan, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, China
HAN Buxin, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
HAN Zaizhu, School of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Beijing Normal University, China
HONG Ying-yi, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Beijing Normal University, China
JIANG Guangrong, School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, China
JIANG Yi, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
LI Xingshan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
LIAN Rong, Department of Psychology, Fujian Normal University, China
LIU Jia, School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China
LIU Xun, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
LONG Lirong, School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
LUO Jing, Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, China
LUO Yuejia, Institute of Affective and Social Neuroscience, Shenzhen University, China
MIAO Danmin, School of Medical Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, China
QIAN Mingyi, Department of Psychology, Peking University, China
QIU Bingwu, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
SHEN Mowei, Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, China
SUI Nan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
WANG Hui, Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, China
WANG Suiping, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, China
WANG Xiao-Tian, Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota, USA
WENG Xuchu, Department of Psychology, Hangzhou Normal University, China
WU Yanhong, Department of Psychology, Peking University, China
XIE Xiaofei, Department of Psychology, Peking University, China
XIN Tao, School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China
XU Yan, School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China
YAN Jin, Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
YANG Baiyin, School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University, China
YU Jiayuan, School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, China
YUE Guoan, Department of Social Psychology, Nankai University, China
ZHANG Jijia, Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, China
ZHANG Jiehai, Institute of Sociology, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, China
ZHANG Qinglin, School of Psychology, Southwest University, China
ZHANG Zhixue, Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, China
ZHOU Xiaolin, Department of Psychology, Peking University, China
ZHOU Yongdi, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, China
ZHU Liqi, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
ZOU Hong, Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China
The reciprocal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
There is a close relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents. According to the interpersonal risk model, negative interpersonal experiences, such as peer victimization, are important stressors, and they leave children with their basic need for belonging unsatisfied and so lead to a series of problem behaviors. The symptom-driven model emphasizes that internalizing problems leave individuals vulnerable to attack, so internalizing problems are risk factors for predicting peer victimization. The interaction model shows that childhood and adolescence are in high-incidence periods for peer victimization and internalizing problems, and internalizing problems may lead to negative peer reaction (such as peer victimization and peer rejection), which in turn induces more internalizing problems, and vice versa. Many studies have explored the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems, but the results have been mixed. This meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the longitudinal relationship between these two variables. Through literature retrieval, 99 independent effect sizes were selected, covering a total of 70,598 participants, which met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. After coding the data, we analyzed the main effect and moderating effect using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2.0. Heterogeneity testing indicated that the random effect model was suitable for the meta-analysis. Based on the funnel plots and Egger’s regression Intercept, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies. The main effect test indicated significant prospective pathways from peer victimization to internalizing problems (β = 0.097, 95% CI = [0.083, 0.110]) and from internalizing problems to peer victimization (β = 0.119, 95% CI = [0.104, 0.135]), which suggests that peer victimization and internalizing problems are related in a reciprocal manner. Moderation analysis revealed that the predictive effect of peer victimization on internalizing problems was moderated by age and also by the type of peer victimization. The predictive effect of internalizing problems on peer victimization was moderated by measurement interval, types of peer victimization, method of assessment, and types of internalizing problems. However, whether the participants lived in Chinese or Western cultures did not moderate the relationships observed. The results supported the interaction model, which suggested that peer victimization and internalizing problems are mutually influencing factors. Future research and intervention program design should look for protective factors outside the individual system to help children and adolescents break the vicious circle between these two variables. Moreover, particular attention should be given to the effects of age, types of peer victimization, assessment method, measurement interval, and types of internalizing problems on the relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is one of the common methods to study unconscious visual processing. In the regular CFS paradigms used in previous studies, dynamic or high contrast image sequences (such as the Mondrian pattern sequences) are presented to one eye as masks. Meanwhile, a static or lower contrast target is presented to the opposite eye, which can be rendered invisible by the masks for a short period of time. The present study was designed to explore whether the CFS can effectively block the conscious processing of multiple moving targets. Inspired by the camouflage of chameleons in the nature, we proposed a novel CFS paradigm (which we call the “chameleon” paradigm). By using the alpha blending algorithm, we ensured the color of the targets to be consistent with the corresponding regions of the CFS masks at any moment. We then tested whether the “chameleon” paradigm can obscure the targets’ motion information from awareness more effectively than the regular CFS paradigm. We randomly recruited eight participants. Their dominant eye was presented with the regular CFS masks; meanwhile the non-dominant eye was presented with ten spatially non-overlapping squares as the targets which moved either upwards or downwards at a constant velocity. Each square had one second of lifetime. Thus, for each square, after every one second of movement, its position was reset, and then it continued to move in the same direction at the same speed. In each trial, the target squares were presented for ten seconds (refreshing their positions ten times) at most. By manipulating the degree of color consistency between the targets and the masks, a total of four experimental conditions were included, with a “chameleon” condition and three control conditions. Participants were instructed to report the moving direction of the targets on seeing the targets by pressing a corresponding button. The program recorded both the response accuracy and the response time since the start of a trial (i.e., the time required for the targets to break into awareness, aka the breakthrough time). We also calculated the percentage of trials where the targets broke into awareness, which was called the breakthrough rate. The results showed that the “chameleon” paradigm allowed the CFS masks to efficiently block the conscious processing of multiple moving targets. Specifically, as compared to the three control conditions with less degree of color consistency between the targets and the CFS masks, the breakthrough rate was significantly lower under the “chameleon” condition where the color of the targets was fully consistent with the CFS masks. No significant differences were found for the breakthrough rate between the three control conditions. Moreover, according to the grand average data, in the “chameleon” condition the moving targets could break into awareness within 10 s in only about 25% of the trials. For the three control conditions, this probability increased to more than 80%, suggesting an overwhelming advantage of the “chameleon” paradigm in rendering multiple moving targets invisible. Another advantage of the “chameleon” paradigm is that it does not require the CFS masks to contain any motion information resembling the targets, and thereby it ensures that the measurement of unconscious visual motion processing is exclusively from the target. Compared with the idea of modifying CFS masks in the literature, our method is believed to have broader applicability. Therefore, we recommend the “chameleon” paradigm a useful tool for future investigations of unconscious visual motion information processing.
Toddlers’ anxiety predicts their creativity at the age of five: the chain mediation effects of general cognition and mastery motivation
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Anxiety is an aversive emotional and motivational state occurring in threatening circumstances, mainly including general anxiety and separation anxiety in early childhood. General anxiety is a kind of trait anxiety relating to general susceptibility to anxiety, while separation anxiety belongs to the state anxiety determined interactively by trait and situational stress. Previous studies have demonstrated the negative effects of anxiety on creativity, but less is known about the mechanisms of these effects, particular the longitudinal effects of anxiety on creativity from toddlerhood to preschool period. Processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory explained the effect of anxiety on cognition from the perspective of cognitive processing. Moreover, childhood anxiety may longitudinally affect later development of creativity through neuroendocrine system. That is, anxiety activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) with releasing glucocorticoids, which are associated with the development of higher-order cognitive function. Thus, we assumed that anxiety in early childhood had a longitudinal adverse effect on later development of creativity. Further, the present study explored the mechanisms between early childhood anxiety and creativity in preschool period. The general cognitive ability, a fundamental component of creativity, and motivation may be candidate mediating variables. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, a necessary precondition for the development from one cognitive stage to a higher stage is that the individual encounters with discrepancies between the previous schema and the current stimulus, which lead to the motivation to achieve a new cognitive balance. These views suggested that cognition and motivation may be two closely intertwined processes, and general cognitive functions play a decisive role in motivation activation. For younger children, the motivation is reflected in the persistence on objects and people and so on, namely mastery motivation. Accordingly, a longitudinal study was designed to examine the relation between anxiety of toddlers and their creativity when they were 5 years old, and investigate the underlying mechanism by chain mediation effects of general cognitive function and mastery motivation. Ninety-six families (42 boys and 54 girls) were recruited from the local communities and child care clinics in urban areas of Beijing. At 14 and 25 months, infants’ general anxiety and separation anxiety were reported by their mother with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA-Chinese version). When children were 25 and 38 months, children’s general cognition and mastery motivation were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and Dimensions of Mastery Motivation Questionnaire in the laboratory respectively. Children’s creativity was assessed by Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) when they were 61 months. Results showed as follows. (1) Both general anxiety and separation anxiety in the first two years of life negatively predicted motor creativity at preschool years directly. (2) The chain mediation effects of general cognition at toddler period and mastery motivation at age 3 were significantly linking both types of anxiety to creativity. (3) The general anxiety could negatively predict mastery motivation, which in turn led to the decreased performance of creativity. Overall, our findings indicated the long-term impact of both general and separation anxiety in early childhood on creativity in preschool years. Path analysis confirmed the intertwined process of cognition and motivation in the development of creativity. These results suggested that early identification of child anxiety as well as intervention for general cognition and mastery motivation would be conducive to the development of creativity.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Sense of agency (SoA) is the feeling of having control over an external event through one’s own actions. SoA is a result of the connection between one’s intentions, actions and outcomes. In addition, predictability of outcomes can also have an effect on SoA. Previous studies have found that threats can reduce agency, but these results are mostly limited to aggressive behavior. A pro-social outcome is often attributable to one’s own action. However, it is unclear whether a person can change their perception of their actions and results. In this study, we used the interval estimation method to examine the effects of voluntary action and the nature of outcomes on SoA under predictable and unpredictable conditions. We used the temporal binding paradigm in order to measure the time interval in a card game task. The intensity of SoA was linked with the estimated time interval. Self-interested and altruistic monetary rewards or neutral outcomes were presented to the participants. In both experiments, a neutral tone emerged by pressing buttons on their own initiative (voluntary action) or following instructions (involuntary action), respectively, under predictable conditions (Experiment 1) and unpredictable conditions (Experiment 2). Time interval from the action to the outcome was set to 200 ms, 500 ms, and 800 ms. Each interval was chosen randomly. In the experiments, participants were asked to estimate the time interval between the keys and the sound or picture, which was expressed as a number between 100 ms and 1000 ms. As the time interval increased, the SoA lessened. In Experiment 1, there was a significant main effect of actions. The time estimate for the voluntary action (self-initiative) was significantly shorter than that for the involuntary actions (following instruction). The main effect of outcome was not significant. The estimations for self-interest, altruism, and neutral outcomes were similar. However, there was a significant interaction between involuntary action and outcome. It was estimated that altruistic and neutral outcomes would take longer than self-interest outcomes, meaning self-interest outcomes would have a stronger SoA. In Experiment 2, there was a main effect of actions. The SoA was weaker in the involuntary action. The main effect of the outcome was significant. The time interval estimation of self-interest and altruistic outcomes was longer than that of neutral outcomes. There was less SoA in self-interest and altruistic outcomes, and there was no significant difference between the two outcomes. No significant interaction was found. The results show that voluntary action plays a significant role in the process of SoA. Individual agency is primarily determined by voluntary action and the nature of outcomes. Involuntary action can reduce individual agency. Predictability can change the individual’s perception of the outcomes, especially when the self-interest outcome is more predictable than the altruistic outcome. The agency of self-interest and altruistic outcomes had no difference under unpredictable conditions and was weaker than the neutral outcome. The results show that outcome (self-interest and altruism) has a top-down effect on SoA and the effect is more prominent in voluntary action.
The developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, internalizing and externalizing problems for early adolescence in China: a within-person analysis
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Conceptually, prosocial behavior reduces externalizing problems (e.g., aggression) and internalized problems (e.g., depression) because prosocial behavior promotes positive emotions (e.g., to find delight in helping others). Therefore, understanding the developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, and internalizing and externalizing problems is of great value to the promotion of adolescent mental health. Developmental cascades model describes the above-mentioned process, that is, the function of one domain (level or system) will affect the function of another domain (level or system); as time goes on, multiple interactions in different domains (levels or systems) will produce cumulative effects that can spill over and affect the functions of other domain (level or system). Researchers usually use longitudinal data to test a developmental cascades model. However, previous studies tend to base their conclusions on the cross-lagged panel model (CLPM), which cannot sufficiently answer the causally reciprocal relationship the developmental cascade model described because CLPM mixed the between- and within-person effects. The results of the within-person analysis, which takes the individual him/herself as the control, are more likely indicating the within-person changes of studied variables and their temporal relationships, and thus are consistent with the theoretical hypothesis of the developmental cascades model. The current study attempts to test the developmental cascades of prosocial behavior tendency, and internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of Chinese adolescents, and to show how the within-person analysis and the analysis based on traditional CLPM influence the conclusions. The demographic questionnaires together with Prosocial Tendencies Measure, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Buss-Warren Aggression Questionnaire were administered in two junior schools for three years. Totally 894 students completed the three-wave investigations. Among them, the age ranged from 11 to 15 years old (12.7 ± 0.60), including 517 boys (57.8%) at the beginning of the investigation. In terms of parental educational attainment, 94.6% of fathers completed nine-year compulsory education, and 56.9% of them completed high school or above level education; 91.5% of mothers completed nine-year compulsory education, and 52.2% of them completed high school or above level education. Two models of within-person analysis (RI-CLPM and GCLM) were used to analyze the data, and be compared with the traditional CLPM. The data fitting indexes of the three models were all acceptable, but the results were different, leading to very different conclusions. Particularly, GCLM can separate within- and between-person effects; (2) GCLM did not assume continuous development in comparison with RI-CLPM. These advantages of GCLM made GCLM have accurate estimates than other two models. Based on the results of GCLM, the research showed that (1) at the within-person level, prosocial behavior tendency had moderate or weak co-movements with internalizing and externalizing problems. The prosocial behavior tendency measured at T1 can predict the internalizing problems measured at T2, and the prosocial behavior tendency measured at T2 can predict the externalizing problems measured at T3; (2) for the group of girls, the internalizing problems measured at T2 can predict the externalizing problems measured at T3, while in the group of boys, the results did not support the reciprocal relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) the public, compliant, emotional and altruistic factors of prosocial behavior tendency can negatively predict the next-year internalizing problems, and these four factors can negatively predict the externalizing problems measured at T2. These results suggested the value of prosocial behavior as the potential way to promote adolescent’s mental health, and within-person analysis in the developmental cascades research, and also indicated that mental health promotion programs should take the gender differences into account.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Researchers found that moral information plays the most important role in the formation of impressions of individuals. In the previous studies on person perception, most of them distinguished moral character from other traits such as ability and sociability, and examined the priority and dominance of moral information. However, in order to understand and predict people’s behavior more specifically, it is not enough to distinguish morality from other types of traits. Five studies were conducted to explore whether different types of traits have different effects on perceptions of other people’s moral (good and evil) levels. The perception of others’ moral level is fundamental to judge their level of good and evil. The concept of good and evil personalities proposed by researchers in Chinese culture conducts a specific interpretation of moral and immoral characters from the perspective of personality. Study 1 investigated whether there was a hierarchy between good and evil personalities. The results showed that when asked to select which traits belong to morality, the frequency of good personality traits that participants selected was more than that of evil personality traits. Both good and evil personality traits were selected more often than non-moral traits. In Study 2, two sub-studies were conducted to explore the differences in the representativeness (i.e., the degree of usefulness) of different dimensions of good or evil personality in judging whether an individual is “good” or “evil.” The results of Study 2a showed that when people judged a person as “good,” the representativeness of each dimension from high to low was conscientiousness and integrity > benevolence and amicability ≈ tolerance and magnanimity > altruism and dedication. The results of Study 2b showed that when people judged a person to be “evil,” the representativeness of each dimension from high to low was atrociousness and mercilessness > faithlessness and treacherousness ≈ calumniation and circumvention > mendacity and hypocrisy. In Study 3, desirability and the scope of trait were used as the measurement standards to verify the hierarchies of good (and evil) personality traits inference. The scope of trait describes the minimum behavior frequency that people need to identify a trait. Results showed that desirability and the scope of trait of each dimension were consistent to Study 2. The differential patterns were also demonstrated by ranking method in Study 4. When people need to judge the good and evil degrees of a person, they thought that the conscientiousness and integrity dimension was more important than the altruism and dedication dimension; and the atrociousness and mercilessness dimension was more important than the mendacity and hypocrisy dimension. People always show different patterns of good and evil in thoughts, feelings and behaviors, which can be attributed to personality traits related to good and evil. The study of good and evil personality contributes to people’s basic understanding of good and evil. Moreover, the hierarchies model of good and evil personality traits which based on Chinese culture provided a new idea for the integration of the content of good and evil judgment.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
The representation mechanism of implicit sequence learning is one of the basic problems in the field of implicit learning, and it remains unclear. Three key theories have been proposed to demonstrate the representation mechanism of implicit sequence learning: stimulus-stimulus association learning (S-S), response-response association learning (R-R), and stimulus-response association learning (S-R). Most studies of implicit sequence learning employed reaction time as a dependent variable to investigate the representation mechanism. However, using reaction time directly in the model may not be ideal as the measured reaction time has several limitations that may confuse the results. For example, the baseline of reaction time may vary across different age groups. In order to overcome the shortcomings of reaction time, the present research applied an eye movement tracking technique and used the saccadic response time as the dependent variable. In the current study, prosaccade and antisaccade trials in single or mixed tasks were investigated with eye movements, which were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 plus eye-tracker (SR Research inc., Canada). In a prosaccade trial, the participant was asked to look towards a newly appearing target, while in an antisaccade trial, a saccade of the participant to the location opposite to the appeared target was required. Three sets of experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, forty college students completed the mixed tasks which included both the prosaccade tasks (red target) and the antisaccade tasks (green target). The participants were randomly assigned to a stimulus sequence group (i.e., stimulus followed the sequence) or a response sequence group (i.e., response followed the sequence). In Experiment 2, thirty-eight college students completed either the prosaccade tasks or antisaccade tasks by the instruction of experiment 2. In Experiment 3, two distractors which had one of the same features as the target (color/shape) were added in the trial. Thirty-eight college students completed the task with distractor or the task without distractor. The results showed that (1) in the mixed saccadic tasks, there was implicit sequence learning in the stimulus sequence condition and in the response sequence condition; (2) in the single saccadic tasks, there was implicit sequence learning in the prosaccade condition and in the antisaccade condition. However, significant difference in the sequence learning scores between the mixed saccadic tasks and the single saccadic tasks was observed; (3) in the distractor tasks, there was implicit sequence learning in the distractor task condition and in the no distractor task condition. The results of the current three experiments indicate that the representation mechanism of implicit sequence learning includes learning of multiple sequences: stimulus-stimulus association learning (S-S); response-response association learning (R-R); and stimulus-response association learning (S-R).
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
Eye contact plays an important role in social interaction and can capture and hold attention. Previous studies have shown that eye contact can guide attentional allocation. However, a face with direct or averted gaze is a special object containing social information. The object’s guidance for attentional allocation is called object-based attention (OBA), in which items in the cued object are processed more preferentially than items in the un-cued object. It is still unclear how eye contact interacts with objects in guiding attentional allocation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of eye contact and the cognitive mechanism of OBA. We conducted three experiments using the two-rectangle cueing paradigm and objects with different gaze directions. In Experiment 1, faces were used as stimulus and to investigate whether and how eye contact interacted with face to guide attentional allocation. At the beginning of each trial, the fixation cross and two objects originally were displayed for 1000 ms on a screen. Then, a cue appeared randomly at any of the four ends of the two objects for 100 ms. After 0 ms, 200 ms, or 500 ms of inter-stimulus, the target appeared until the participant pressed the “M” key or remained on screen for 1500 ms. A black screen was then presented for 500 ms after each trial. During the experiment, the participants were asked to locate targets by pressing “M” as quickly as possible. We ruled out the influence of low-level features by using contrast reversed faces in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, cups overlaid with eyes were used to explore whether the effect of eye contact still existed on real objects. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that there was a significant interaction between gaze directions, cue position, and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Specifically, a larger object-based effect was discovered when the cue appeared on the direct-gaze face compared to the averted-gaze face under the 300 ms SOA condition; however, there was no significant difference between them under 100 ms and 600 ms SOA conditions. Further analysis showed that the differences in object-based effect occurred because the participants reacted more quickly to the target in direct gaze than in averted gaze under the invalid same-object condition, which indicated that direct gaze could capture attention and cause a larger object-based effect. The difference in object-based effect between direct and averted gaze at 300 ms SOA disappeared in Experiment 2. The results of Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further demonstrated that the influence of eye contact on OBA could extend to real objects. In conclusion, the present study extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it provides the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that eye contact interacts with objects, including faces and cups, in guiding attentional allocation. The top-down processing of eye contact facilitates the processing of objects under an invalid same-object location, which leads to greater OBA and supports the sensory enhancement theory. Second, it also reveals that the influence of eye contact on OBA is regulated by SOA.
The effect of secondary task on power-space interactions during the performance of a semantic category judgment task
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2022,No. 07
There is much evidence suggesting that power is represented as vertical space in our brain, specifically, verbal-spatial coding (amodal representation) and visuospatial coding (modal representation). The two kinds of coding are context-dependent, the activation of which depends on the concurrent task. Studies using the dual-task paradigm have revealed that the explicit power judgment task activates the two kinds of coding, whereas the semantic category judgment task mainly activates the verbal-spatial coding. However, it is still unclear whether the semantic category judgment task can activate the visuospatial coding when excluding the verbal-spatial coding. Thus, the aim of the present study is to explore whether the semantic category judgment task can activate the visuospatial coding when excluding verbal-spatial information. Using the dual-task paradigm, the present study tested the effect of visuospatial and verbal secondary task on the power-space interactions after excluding the verbal-spatial coding. In the experiment, a power word was presented in the center of the screen with two response labels (“human” and “animal”) at the up or down side of the target word. The response labels were mapping to the up and down arrow keys in the keyboard. The locations of the two labels exchanged from trial to trial. This manipulation could exclude the activation of the verbal-spatial coding. Participants were required to judge the semantic category of the word in three task conditions: the single task, the visual dual task, and the verbal dual task. It is hypothesized that the power-space interactions would be affected by the visual secondary task, but not by the verbal secondary task. Consistent with our prediction, the results showed that the power-space interactions during the semantic category judgment task were affected by the visual secondary task, but not by the verbal secondary task. The findings suggested that (1) the semantic category judgment task could activate visuospatial coding (modal representations) individually after excluding the verbal-spatial coding and (2) the visuospatial coding was only interfered with by the visuospatial secondary task.