Sponsored by Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences; China Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion
ISSN 1000-0607 CN 11-2274/R
6 issues per year
Discipline(s): Medical Science
Current Issue: Issue 01, 2019
Acupuncture Research, the only journal in China that focus on the mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion, is supervised by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China and sponsored by Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences and China Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion. Launched in 1976, the journal is a sole academic journal mainly reporting the original experimental studies about the mechanism of the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion for treating common diseases. About 75% of these studies are subsidized by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, State Administration of TCM, provincial (municipal) natural science foundation. The articles published in this journal no doubt reflect the highest level of scientific research in the field of acupuncturology in China. It is titled as the “Outstanding Scientific and Technological Journal of China” and “RCCSE Authoritative Academic Journal of China.” The journal is included in CA, CSCD.
Members of Editorial Board
Christopher John Zaslawski (Australia) CUI Jin(China)
DENG Liangyue(China) DING Guanghong(China)
DONG Guirong(China) FAN Yushan(China)
FANG Jianqiao(China) GE Linbao(China)
GONG Changzhen(USA) GUO Yi(China)
HAN Jingxian(China) HAN Yanjing(China)
HE Tianyou(China) HU Ling(China)
HU Xianglong(China) HUANG Longxiang(China)
JIA Chunsheng(China) JIN Zhigao(China)
KANG Mingfei(China) Kathleen K. Hui (USA)
LAI Xinsheng(China) LI Qun(USA)
LI Zhongren(China) LIANG Fanrong(China)
LIU Baoyan(China) LIU Jing(USA)
LIU Junling(China) LU Mei(China)
MA Shengxing(USA) MA Tieming(China)
Miyagawa Hiroshiya(Japan) SUN Zhongren(China)
TIAN Yuefeng(China) WAN You(China)
WANG Fuchun(China) WANG Hua(China)
WU Fudong(China) WU Gencheng(China)
WU Zhongchao(China) XU Nenggui(China)
YAN Jie(China) YU Shuguang(China)
YU Xiaochun(China) ZHANG Hongqi(China)
ZHAO Jingsheng(China) ZHAO Yan(China)
Zhen Zheng (Australia) ZHU Bing(China)
ZHU Jiang(China) ZHUO Lianshi(China)
CAO Xiaoding(China) CHENG Xinnong(China) HAN Jisheng(China)
Herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion improves intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by suppressing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis pathway of intestinal epithelium in rats with Crohn’s disease
Vol 44,No. 01
Objective To observe the effect of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion (Moxi) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) -associated death domain (TRADD) /Fas-associated death domain (FADD) pathway-mediated apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn’s disease (CD) rats, so as to explore its underlying mechanisms in the treatment of CD. Methods Forty-eight SD male rats were randomly divided into normal, model, Moxi and medication groups ( n = 12 rats in each). The CD model was established by intra-annual perfusion of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) solution (TNBS:50% alcohol = 2:1, 3 mL/kg), once every 7 days, 4 times altogether. For rats of the Moxi group, moxibustion was given to Tianshu (ST 25) (ST25) and Qihai (CV 6) (CV6), two moxa-cones every time, once daily for 10 days. For rats of the medication group, intragastric perfusion of mesalazine solution was given twice daily for 10 days. After the treatment, the colonic epithelium tissue was sampled. The epithelial cells were purified and cultured to establish an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier, and added with TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory factor, 100 ng/mL) in the culture medium for 24 h for making an increased epithelial permeability model. The permeability of intestinal epithelial cell barrier was evaluated by detecting the fluorescence yellow transmittance of the TNF-α-incubated cell medium. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of TNFR1, TRADD, receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), FADD and zinc finger protein A20 (A20, a ubiquitination enzyme for inhibiting activation of TRADD and RIP1) of the cultured intestinal epithelium cells. The apoptosis of the TNF-α-incubated intestinal epithelial cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results After modeling and compared with the normal group, the fluorescence yellow transmittance of intestinal epithelia cells, apoptosis rate, and expression levels of TNFR1, TRADD, and RIP1 proteins were significantly increased ( P < 0.001, P < 0.01), and the expression of A20 was significantly decreased ( P < 0.01) in the model group. In comparison with the model group, the fluorescence yellow transmittance of intestinal epithelial cells, the apoptosis rate and expression levels of TRADD, RIP1 and FADD were remarkably down-regulated ( P < 0.001, P < 0.01), and the expression of A20 was significantly up-regulated ( P < 0.01) in both the Moxi and medication groups. Conclusion Herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion may down-regulate the permeability of intestinal epithelial barrier and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells by way of suppressing TNF-α-mediated cellular apoptosis pathway of intestinal epithelium in CD rats.
Eye-acupuncture intervention reduces cerebro-cortical apoptosis of neurovascular unit in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats
Vol 44,No. 01
Objective To observe the effect of eye-acupuncture intervention on cerebro-cortical apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cells, neurons and astrocytes (main components of neurovascular unit) and the expression of Bad (an apoptosis promoter) and Bcl-xL proteins in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of CIRI. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into control, sham-operation, model 3 h, model 24 h, model 72 h, eye-acupuncture 3 h, eye-acupuncture 24 h and eye-acupuncture 72 h groups ( n = 12 in each group). The CIRI model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). Eye-acupuncture was applied to bilateral “Gan” (Liver) regions, “Shen” (Kidney) regions, “Shangjiao” (Upper-energizer) and “Xiajiao” (Lower-energizer) for 20 min, once 3 h and every 12 h after modeling. The expression levels of Bad and Bcl-xL in the ischemic cerebral cortex tissue were detected by Western blot. The apoptotic neurons, microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were assayed by immunofluorescence double labeling [Nestin/TUNEL, CD34/TUNEL and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/TUNEL] separately. Results After modeling, the numbers of apoptotic neurons, microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes in the ischemic cerebral cortex tissue were significantly increased in the model 72 h group than in the sham-operation group ( P < 0.01). Following the treatment, the numbers of the 3 types of apoptotic cells were markedly lower in the eye-acupuncture 72 h group than in the model 72 h group ( P < 0.01). The expression levels of Bad and Bcl-xL proteins were notably up-regulated in the model 3 h, model 24 h and model 72 h groups than in the sham operation group ( P < 0.01). Following eye-acupuncture intervention, modeling induced increase of the Bad expression were obviously reversed in eye-acupuncture 24 h and eye-acupuncture 72 h groups than those in the 2 model groups ( P < 0.05). And the increase of Bcl-xL expression levels were further increased in the eye-acupuncture groups in comparison with those in the 3 model groups ( P < 0.01). Conclusion Eye-acupuncture can down-regulate the expression of Bad protein, and up-regulate the expression of Bcl-xL protein in the ischemic cerebral cortex in CIRI rats, which may contribute to its function in reducing apoptotic neurons, microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, suggesting a protective effect of eye-acupuncture intervention on neurovascular unit.
Clinical trials of acupuncture treatment of post-stroke dysphagia by deep acupuncture of Tiantu (CV22) in combination with swallowing rehabilitation training
Vol 44,No. 01
Objective To observe the effect of deep acupuncture at Tiantu (CV22) in combination with rehabilitation training on swallowing function of patients with post-stroke dysphasia. Methods A total of 70 patients suffering from poststroke dysphagia were randomly divided into control group (conventional acupuncture + swallowing rehabilitation training) and treatment group [deep acupuncture at Tiantu CV22 + rehabilitation training, n = 35 cases in each group]. The swallowing rehabilitation procedure was conducted 30 min every time, twice daily, five times a week for three weeks. In patients of the treatment group, after deep insertion (about 80 mm) along the posterior margin of the manubrium sterna, the filiform needle at Tiantu (CV22) was lifted and thrust repeatedly for nine times till the patient experienced a feeling of foreign matter blocking, followed by retaining the needle for 30 min. For patients of the control group, Lianquan (CV23) was punctured with three acupuncture needles (one vertical needling and bilateral slope needling toward the tongue root), and Fengfu (GV16), bilateral Bailao (EX-NH23), bilateral Renying (ST9) and bilateral Jialianquan (Extra) were punctured vertically with filiform needles. The treatment was conducted once daily, five times a week for three weeks. The swallowing function was evaluated by using Kubota water swallowing test (KWST) scale (0–5 points), Fujishima Ichiro rating scale (FIRS, 0–10 points), and video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS, 0–10 points), separately. The therapeutic effect was also assessed according to the clinical scale scores and VFSS results. Results Following the treatment, of the 35 cases in the control and treatment groups, 4 (11.43%) and 8 (22.86%) experienced marked improvement in their symptoms, 22 (62.86%) and 23 (65.71%) were effective, and 9 (25.71%) and 4 (11.43%) were failed, with the effective rates being 74.29% and 88.57%, respectively. After the treatment, the KWST score of the two groups were significantly decreased in comparison with their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05), while the FIRS and VFSS scores of the two groups were considerably increased in comparison with their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05). The therapeutic effects of the treatment group were obviously superior to those of the control group in the effective rate, lowering KWST score and in raising FIRS and VFSS scores ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture plus swallowing rehabilitation training is effective in improving the swallowing function of stroke patients with dysphagia, and the deep acupuncture stimulation at Tiantu (CV22) is apparently better than conventional acupuncture in the therapeutic effect.
Current situation and thinking on the intestinal microflora regulation with acupuncture and moxibustion
Vol 44,No. 01
Large number of microflora is parasitized in the human intestinal tract, which maintains the stability of the microecological environment in the host’s intestinal tract and the healthy state of the body. Once the steady state is out of balance, the intestinal microflora is dysfunctional and a variety of diseases will be induced. Acupuncture and moxibustion have a positive role in improving different types of clinical problems by regulating qi, harmonizing yin and yang, and strengthening the body’s resistance. At present, researches on the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion interventions on intestinal microflora mainly focuses on the following aspects 1) adjusting the count and proportion of the intestinal microflora to recover its stability, 2) improving gastrointestinal motility disorder by promoting the interaction between intestinal microflora and brain-gut axis (brain-gut peptides), and ameliorating the intestinal barrier function by reducing levels of proinflammatory cytokines to suppress inflammatory reactions. In the future, the research should pay more attention to the holistic regulatory function of acupuncture and moxibustion, the acupoint specificity, acupoint combination and different intervention measures, as well as the optimization of clinical regimen, so as to better intestinal microflora regulation.
Clinical trials of acupuncture of Jiaji (EX-B2) for treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients
Vol 44,No. 01
Objective To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B2) in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients, aiming at providing new clinical approach and evidence for improving septic gastrointestinal activity. Methods A total of 40 patients with septic gastrointestinal dysfunction who met our inclusive criteria were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group ( n = 20 cases in each). Patients in the control group received routine treatment of nasogastric mosapride citrate (5 mg/time, three times a day) and tifidobacterium triple viable capsules (420 mg, twice a day), intravenous infusion of omeprazole (40 mg, twice a day), rational dose of antibiotics, maintenance treatment of functions of the heart, lung, brain, kidney and other important organs and water electrolyte balance, as well as symptomatic treatment. Patients of the treatment group were treated by acupuncture of EX-B2 on the basis of routine treatment mentioned above in the control group. The acupuncture needle was inserted into EX-B2, twirled for a while and retained for 30 min, once a day for ten successive days. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score was given according to Knaus and colleagues’ method, the intra-abdominal pressure was detected by using a manometer which was connected to an inserted canal in the urinary bladder, and the intragatric residul volume detected by using an injection syriange pumping via a nasal feeding tube. Results After the treatment, the APACHE II score, intra-abdominal pressure and intragastric residual volume on day 10 were significantly decreased in both groups in comparison with their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05) , while the borborygmus levels on day 10 were considerably increased in both groups relevant to their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05) .The APACHE II scores, intra-abdominal pressure and intragastric residual volume on day 3, 6 and 10 were significantly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group ( P < 0.05), whereas the borborygmus levels at the 3 rd, 6 th and 10 th day in the treatment group were apparently higher than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture stimulation of EX-B2 has a good curative effect in improving gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients.