Sponsor(s): Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
6 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 05, 2019
Studies of the Chinese language mainly publishes the investigation and research of the Chinese language current situation, history and application, experiment; the research of linguistic theory and linguistic policy; Chinese language teaching and comparison studies of Chinese and foreign language; the research of linguistics and other interdisciplines; the investigation and research of Chinese character current situation, history and application; the review article of linguistic works, etc.
Chairman of the Editorial Board
Historical Research,2019,No. 05
The Sino-Japanese secret agreements were a focus of disputes between China and Japan over the Shandong question at the Paris Peace Conference. Before the conference, the Beijing government’s foreign policy had shifted from being pro-Japanese to pro-Japanese and allying with the United States. But after Lu Zhengxiang (Lou Tseng-Tsiang) arrived in Paris, after conferring with the Beijing government, China’s policy direction changed to allying with the United States and checking Japan. The delegates of China and Japan engaged in a direct confrontation over the Shandong question. Japan insisted that the Sino-Japanese treaties of 1915 and 1918 were valid, but the United States did not recognize them. China urged that the Treaties of the Fourth Year of the Republic (1915) could not be used as the basis for Japan’s acquiring German rights and interests in Shandong. The Chinese delegation was originally unaware of the details of the Sino-Japanese secret agreements of 1918. They only learned its full content during the peace conference. At the conference, China demanded that Germany’s prewar rights and interests in Shandong be directly returned to China, but Japan proposed to take them over and pass them on to China under certain conditions. In accordance with the changing situation at the peace conference, the United States and Japan reached a compromise. They avoided the question of whether the agreements were valid and decided to let Japan take over Germany’s economic rights in Shandong. Japan made an oral statement to the effect that complete sovereignty over the Shandong Peninsula would be returned to China without delay. After China refused to sign the peace treaty with Germany, the Chinese delegation suggested that the Beijing government take a firm position on not recognizing the secret treaties, allowing international mediation over the Shandong question, and refusing to negotiate with Japan. The resolution of the Shandong question thus shifted to a new channel.