Sponsor(s): Industrial economy research institute
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 12, 2018
Journal official website:http://www.jjgl.cass.cn/CommonBlock/GetSiteDescribeDetail/1242?channelID=1242
Economic Management Journal is supervised by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and sponsored by Institute of Industrial Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. It aims to report the economics-based management research, which is an indispensable reference for the management of scientific research. Its scope covers macro-economic management, industrial and regional economic management, business management, management science and engineering, public administration and management reviews. The Journal is included in CSSCI.
Associate Editors in Chief
Impacts of innovation strategy portfolios on product and process innovation: evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms
Business Management Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 12
With the development of global innovation chain and rapid change in technological environment, innovation is a problem that requires urgent attention not only for a firm to survive but also is the basic condition of constructing innovation-oriented country. There are two basic external innovation strategies: technology purchase and R&D outsourcing. However, findings with respect to the specific paths external innovation strategies affect innovation remain inconclusive. In particular, the dynamic mechanism by which external innovation strategies interact with internal R&D and subsequently contributes to innovation performance is still need to be explored. Therefore, the paper investigates the innovation performance influenced by the interplay among three distinct but related factors: internal R&D efforts, technology purchase and R&D outsourcing. Specifically, the three core questions raised in this paper can be express as follows: (1) What is the relationship between internal R&D and R&D outsourcing in product innovation and process innovation? (2) What is the relationship between internal R&D and technology purchase in product innovation and process innovation? (3) How does the combination of the three strategies affects product innovation and process innovation? Literature review shows that there is a fair amount of theoretical work explored the relationship between internal R&D and external technology knowledge sources in theory. Resource-based View (RBV) and transaction cost theory are the most cited theories with opposite view. RBV emphasizes the external innovation strategies’ positive effect due to the accumulation of resources while transaction cost theory emphasizes their negative effect because of the cost trade-off between their inputs. However, the existing research neglects a fact that both knowledge accumulation and cost trade-off are existed in the strategy at the same time. Furthermore, although scholars point out that resource boundary is an important aspect in the innovation system, the study explores the mutual influence of innovation strategies and resource boundary and their comprehensive impact to innovation is scare. What is more, although both product and process are equally important considerations for innovation, previous studies rarely address the innovative performance function of the latter. This paper distinguishes the difference of the influencing channels driven by R&D outsourcing, internal R&D and technology purchase. Therefore, based on RBV and transaction cost theory, this paper discusses the complementarity and substitutability in R&D outsourcing, technology purchase and internal R&D under a dynamic process perspective of the limited resource boundary. The paper uses a sample of 1418 manufacturing firms in China to test hypotheses. The conclusion and contributions reveal: First, the main finding of this study is the identification of the substitutability between R&D outsourcing and internal R&D in the product and process innovation. However, with the addition of interactions among R&D outsourcing, technology purchase and internal R&D, the substitutability between them is no longer significant. Second, this study further reveals that there is the complementarity between technology purchase and internal R&D in the process innovation. On one hand, the positive effect of technology purchase will only emerge if it integrated by internal R&D. On the other hand, the internal R&D efficiency and resources boundary were upgraded by completing the integration with high technical requirements. Third, the results show that technology purchase, internal R&D and R&D outsourcing form an interactive system which affects positively the process innovation by stimulating its resource and capability boundary. The research can guide Chinese firms to extend resource boundary and improve innovation performance in practice by utilizing the integration among R&D outsourcing, technology purchase and internal R&D, it is also useful managerial implications for the construction of innovative country and global innovation chain.
Impacts of cognitive diversity of entrepreneurial team on team performance: a moderated double-mediation model
Business Management Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 12
Nowadays, the competition between organizations and teams becomes fiercer with increasingly environmental change, thereby making diverse teams with various knowledge, information and background being more important and meaningful. Thus, team diversity is becoming a fact of organization life and also gaining growing attention, especially for the entrepreneurial teams. As van Knippenberg and Schippers note, diversity is a characteristic of a social group or team that “reflects the degree to which there are objective or subjective differences between people.” But the effects of team diversity on team effectiveness might be inconsistent. On the one hand, these differences between team members will benefit for the heterogeneity in resource pool and promote the elaboration of valued resources, such as knowledge, information and expertise. On the other hand, the heterogeneity can stimulate team members to distinguish them from others and diminish the possibility of team communication and corporation. Therefore, it is worthy to explore whether diverse teams could have more benefits than homogeneous teams, and in which circumstances diverse teams can show greater competitive advantage. Better understanding of these above questions can provide a useful guidance to manage and take advantage of team diversity. Cognitive diversity, prevailing in teamwork form, profoundly impacts team interaction process and team performance. Generally speaking, cognitive diversity refers to team members’ differences in value, attitudes, knowledge. The core question what we concern about is how cognitive diversity can influence team performance based on “Categorization-Elaboration Model.” By integrating information/decision-making perspective and social categorization perspective, this paper tries to explore the positive pathway of “cognitive diversity–knowledge sharing–team performance” and the negative pathway of “cognitive diversity–emotional support–team performance.” Besides, whether the attitudes towards cognitive diversity (i.e., diversity beliefs) would influence the strengths of these two pathways. Our research examined the mediating effects and contextual factors of the relationship between team cognitive diversity and team performance. Through a questionnaire survey of 110 entrepreneurial teams (110 team leaders and 454 team members) collected in three time points, we find that: (1) After controlling team size, age diversity and gender diversity, team cognitive diversity has positive effects on team members’ knowledge sharing, and also has negative association with team members’ emotional support; (2) Knowledge sharing and emotional support mediate the relationship between team cognitive diversity and team performance; (3) Diversity beliefs moderate the relationship between cognitive diversity and knowledge sharing/emotional support, such that the positive relationship between cognitive diversity and knowledge sharing was more significant and the negative relationship between cognitive diversity and emotional support was less significant for teams with high diversity beliefs; and (4) Team members’ diversity beliefs moderates the mediating effects of “cognitive diversity–knowledge sharing/emotional support–team performance.” That is to say, when the differences in cognitions are regarded as good for the team, team members would tend to share knowledge with and get more support from other members, which could lead to better team performance. This study provided two main theoretical contributions. First, previous research only tested either positive or negative effects of cognitive diversity on team performance, which could not explain the inconsistent findings between cognitive diversity and performance. By adopting “Categorization-Elaboration Model” framework, this study tested the positive pathway between cognitive diversity and team performance through knowledge sharing (at task level) and the negative pathway between cognitive diversity and team performance through emotional support (at relationship level) . Second, this study tested whether diversity beliefs would enhance the positive relationship between cognitive diversity and knowledge sharing, and diminish the negative association between cognitive diversity and emotional support. These results can provide meaningful guidance for theorists and practitioners to manage team diversity. At the end, this study also discussed about the practical implications, limitations and future directions.
Business Management Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 12
Stimulating employees’ career calling is a significant way to motivate their positive work attitudes and behaviors. However, only John et al. (2015) , Duffy et al. (2012) , Harzer and Ruch (2012) and Xie et al. (2016) explored the influence of religious belief, job interest, core self-evaluation, and professional cognition on career calling, which are not sufficient to guide the positive role of career calling in management practice. Spiritual leadership emphasizes on individual satisfaction with the pursuit of the connection between work and life meaning, which could be an essential element influencing employees’ career calling. Leadership effectiveness research considers leadership to play an indirect role by influencing employees’ motivation or cognition firstly. Besides, Dobrow et al. (2011) stressed that employees’ career calling is closely related to their autonomous motivation. Thus, based on self-determination theory, this study used autonomic motivation as a mediator to explore the mechanism. Moreover, leadership contingency theory points out that individual factors can restrict the effectiveness of leadership behaviors. Thus, this study explored the boundary conditions of the influence mechanism by using employees’ power distance orientation. The samples came from 363 employees of enterprises, public institutions and government agencies. From data analysis, the results showed that spiritual leadership dramatically enhanced employees’ career calling and the relationship between them was partially mediated by autonomous motivation. Employees’ power distance orientation positively moderated the relationship between spiritual leadership and employees’ career calling. In others word, the main effect of spiritual leadership on employees’ career calling would be stronger when the employees’ power distance orientation was higher. Furthermore, power distance orientation acted as a mediated moderator which positively moderated the relationship between the spiritual leadership and employees’ career calling. The theoretical significance lies in the following three aspects. At first, it expands the research on the influence factors of employees’ career calling from the organizational level and confirms that employees’ career calling could be positively predicted by spiritual leadership. More importantly, it has found the “key” of autonomous motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory to reveal the inner path of spiritual leadership influencing employees’ career calling, which echoes Duffy’s and Dik’s (2013) appeal for strengthening theoretical orientation in career calling research. Thus, self-determination theory should be applied in the research of career calling in the future. Secondly, this study verifies the positive moderating effect of power distance orientation from the perspective of leadership-member exchange, which may contradict the previous view that the power distance orientation is to be negatively moderated. Thus, studying and analyzing the moderating effect of the power distance orientation in combination with the characteristics of the leadership behavior is essential. Thirdly, this study verifies that power distance orientation acting as a mediated moderator can reveal the inner mechanism in which spiritual leadership influences employees’ career calling more deeply and comprehensively than the research just studies the effect of moderator or mediator. There are three practice meanings. Firstly, while meeting employees’ material needs, leaders should also meet employees’ spiritual needs through vision, belief and altruistic love, which can fundamentally motivate employees to generate positive work attitudes and behaviors continually. Secondly, based on the theory of self-determination, leaders could improve employees’ autonomous motivation to promote the career calling of staff by satisfying the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, capability and relationship. Thirdly, according to different power distance orientations of employees, leaders should not arbitrarily hold the idea that the influence on employees of lower power distance orientation could be more significant. All in all, leaders should express spiritual leadership behaviors in a targeted way to stimulate employees’ career calling and potential.
Research on the motivation and mechanism of rural e-commerce entrepreneurship agglomeration: case study of Taobao village in Shuyang County
Business Management Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 12
The implementation of Rural Revitalization Strategy is an important foundation for the construction of China's rural modernization economic system. Tremendous economic achievements have been made through e-commerce entrepreneurship in many rural areas of China, and the phenomenon of e-commerce entrepreneurship agglomeration has emerged. However, the reason behind this phenomenon is not clear. From the perspective of dynamic evolution, this paper explains the formation and development process of e-commerce entrepreneurship agglomeration and the key factors affecting each development stage in rural areas through the longitudinal case study of Shuyang Taobao village. It is found that the key driving factors affecting the formation, development, maturity, and transformation and upgrading of the Taobao village e-commerce entrepreneurial agglomeration in Shuyang are the regional entrepreneurial culture tradition, the exemplary effect of entrepreneurial leaders, infrastructure status, institutional support and government guidance. Infrastructure status plays an important role in four stages, including negative impacts, from negative to positive impacts, positive impacts and intangible impacts. The results show that entrepreneurial cultural traditions and the exemplary role of entrepreneurial models can help entrepreneurs overcome difficulties when road and network infrastructure are imperfect, and the continuous improvement of infrastructure and government institutional support can promote the rapid transformation and upgrading of entrepreneurial clusters. The findings of this study are as follows. (1) Cultural factors: regional cultural traditions stimulated villagers to identify and discover entrepreneurial opportunities; (2) entrepreneurial leader factors: the demonstration effect of entrepreneurial leaders promoted the spread of entrepreneurial opportunities; (3) infrastructure factors: the improvement of infrastructure accelerated the formation of industrial clusters; (4) institutional factors: institutional support and government guidance promoted the transformation and upgrading of industrial clusters. It was specially stressed that the dynamic impact of infrastructure factors on the formation and evolution of Taobao village agglomeration. The research contributions of this paper are mainly embodied in the following two aspects: (1) the uniqueness of the research framework and analysis perspective; (2) highlighting the dynamic impact of infrastructure factors on the formation and evolution of Taobao village agglomeration. Many rural areas in China have the foundation of “Internet + Industry” agglomerating development, and the government can encourage peasants to start businesses in the following ways. (1) Creating culture atmosphere of regional innovation and entrepreneurship, and actively cultivating entrepreneurial spirit; (2) regularly selecting innovative and entrepreneurial pacesetter, and striving to propagandize the role model effect of entrepreneurial leaders; (3) increasing input in infrastructure and raising the level of rural informationization; (4) building an innovation and entrepreneurship network platform, and establishing an open innovation network; (5) developing the regional cluster brand, promoting transformation and upgrading of industrial clusters. That is, local governments’ policy-making should focus on the infrastructure investment, the cultivation of entrepreneurial leaders and the guidance and governance of industrial clusters, while attaching importance to the role of innovation and entrepreneurial culture atmosphere in promoting villagers' entrepreneurship and rural economic growth, so as to promote the realization of Rural Revitalization Strategy.
Business Management Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 12
Peer-to-peer accommodation matches private unoccupied houses or spare rooms with the tourists who have accommodation needs through the network. As a result, unoccupied houses and spare rooms can be effectively utilized. As a new form of accommodation under the impetus of Internet Plus Strategy, peer-to-peer accommodation not only provides guests with a series of unique and personalized experiences, but also creates profits for hosts. In fact, peer-to-peer accommodation brings new vitality into the tourism industry and quickly acquires profound influence in the hospitality industry. It offers home-like atmosphere, is full of humanistic care and allows guests to make like-minded friends during their stays. These aspects of peer-to-peer accommodation make consumers expect more from it than what they care about in hotel stays. That is, they hope to have better tourism experiences when using peer-to-peer accommodation services. To some extent, these needs of consumers make their motivations underpinning their choice made in the peer-to-peer accommodation selection process more multi-dimensional. The literature review shows that it is be possible to summarize the general motivations behind consumer’s choices of P2P accommodation from existing research on tourist amenities and to study the unique motivations from the differences between P2P accommodation and other hospitality services. However, current studies are not only dispersive but also unsystematic. Meanwhile, these studies were mainly done by use of qualitative methods, thus lacking quantitative analyses and data support. Therefore, to discover the generality and uniqueness of tourists’ motivations in the decision-making process of peer-to-peer accommodation becomes necessary. Web crawling technology was used in this research to grab guest reviews from the Airbnb website, and content analysis methods were utilized to analyze the user-generated data gathered online. We have two findings from the analyses. First, while making decisions in the peer-to-peer accommodation selection process, users have some general motivations similar to those in the hotel selection process influencing their decision-making. These general motivations include price, environment, customer service, amenities, as well as sanitation and safety. Second, there are some unique motivations in the decision-making process of peer-to-peer accommodation generally grouped into three categories, namely, home-likeness, interactivity and authenticity. The home-likeness of peer-to-peer accommodation makes guests feel at home. Travelers’ urge for interactivity suggests that they hope to share living spaces and communicate with local residents and obtain information and advice useful to their trips from hosts. As for authenticity, this feature of peer-to-peer accommodation gives tourists an opportunity to experience local culture, customs and lifestyles as if they are natives. Findings of this research lay a solid foundation for enriching and developing theories on peer-to-peer accommodation. In order to make future research more scientific and persuasive, a general framework was set up to explore the consumptive characteristics of tourists in the decision-making process of peer-to-peer accommodation, which can help hosts and accommodation exchange platforms make targeted marketing strategy more effectively and efficiently.