Dialogue and integration between area studies and international politics: constructing the intellectual support of the Belt and Road Initiative
Foreign Affairs Review,Vol 34,No. 05
As a global major country with increasingly rapid development, the effective dialogue and organic cooperation between area studies and theoretical research as well as between theoretical research and empirical research are urgent due to the huge demand for knowledge created in a short time by the strategic diplomatic conception and practice represented by the Belt and Road Initiative. However, it is difficult for area and country studies to meet the surging demand of knowledge due to the lack of theoretical perspective as well as the circumstance of emphasizing empirical research but diminishing theoretical research. From the experience of the Middle East Studies in the U.S., it can be learned that in the integrating process of area studies and political science, area studies need to have theoretical confidence and critical spirit so as to maintain the independence of setting research agenda, instead of being led by the mainstream conclusions of political science. Different from the U.S., China Studies in Japan show the phenomenon that the research agenda of area studies is controlled by the short-time trends of the object of study, and is mostly descriptive analysis lack of theoretical perspective. The lack of knowledge competition environment hinders the speed and quality of the organic integration between China Studies and political science in Japan, and weakens its policy and social recognition. Based on the experience and lessons learned from the U.S. and Japan, area studies and political science in China should attempt to develop a knowledge relationship featuring equality, mutual respect, mutual benefits and benign competition, and set out on a path of dialogue and integration.
Petroleum Drilling Techniques,Vol 46,No. 01
It is easy for wellbores to lose stability during drilling through shale formations where induced fractures and cracks might be generated due to drilling unloading in rocks around the wellbore and the consequent reduces rock strength, which thereby can cause wellbore instability. To ensure consistent wellbore stability while drilling through shale, the author simulated stress change process during drilling unloading with a triaxial testing system to analyze the impact of unloading on shale mechanical properties. Further, the relationship between shale cohesion, internal friction angle and the unloading amplitude was set up with the regression method, and a wellbore stability model was established that took into consideration the unloading effect by introducing the newly defined relationship into normal wellbore stability model. The testing results demonstrated that unloading would reduce shale strength and accordingly shale strength reduction would increase with the increase in unloading. Considering the unloading effect, wellbore collapse pressure will increase for the shale (especially for shale under high in-situ stress and strong anisotropy). When the angle between the borehole and the minimum horizontal stress is comparatively small, the effect of unloading on the shale wellbore stability is limited. The research results indicated that the effect of unloading on wellbore collapse pressure of shale should not be overlooked, and it should be taken into account in designing the drilling fluid.
Protection of Ginkgo-Dipyridamole Injection on Rat Myocardial Cells Injured by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal,Vol 53,No. 06
OBJECTIVE To explore the protective effect of ginkgo-diyidamolum (GD) injection on rat myocardial cells injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation. METHODS The model of oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat myocardial cells was established. The cells were randomly divided into five groups: normal group, oxygen-glucose deprivation group, low-, middle-, and high-dose GD injection groups (0.28, 0.84, and 1.40 mg·mL −1) . The effects of GD injection on NO level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, changes in the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated. Cells apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry. The gene transcription level of myocardial cell gap junction protein 43 (Cx43) was monitored by RT-PCR. RESULTS Compared with oxygen-glucose deprivation group, GD injection could reduce the contents of intracellular NO, MDA, LDH and enhance the activity of SOD. GD injection in the high-dose and middle-dose groups obviously improved the myocardial cell morphology, inhibited cell apoptosis and Cx43 gene in myocardial cells. CONCLUSION GD injection has a strong protective effect when myocardial cells injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation, which is related to the antioxidant effect, inhibition of cell apoptosis, and maintenance of myocardial gap junction channel.
Effects of Hydroxysafflor yellow A on the T lymphocytes dysfunction of human peripheral blood induced by lipopolysaccharide
The Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,Vol 33,No. 19
Objective To observe the effect of Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on T lymphocytes proliferation and mitochondrial membrane injury of human peripheral blood induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Human T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood. The T lymphocyte suspension was divided averagely into five groups as follows: blank control group (without any drug and cell), positive control group (LPS 80 μg·mL −1), low-, middle-, high-concentration test groups (200, 400, and 800 μmol·L −1 HSYA + LPS 80 μg·mL −1). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to measure the proliferation of T cells, and mitochondrial membrane was measured by flow cytometry. Results The cell viabilities in positive control group and low-, middle-, high-concentration test groups were 50%, 63%, 90%, and 99%. The cell viabilities in middle-, high-concentration test groups were significantly different from those in the positive control group and low-concentration test group ( P < 0.05). The percentages of mitochondrial membrane injury in positive control group and low-, middle-, high-concentration test groups were 19.2%, 17.3%, 13.0%, and 10.4%, and the reduction in the percentage of mitochondrial membrane injury was most significant in high-concentration test group. Conclusion HSYA was effective in promoting the proliferation of T lymphocytes inhibited by LPS, and ameliorating LPS-induced mitochondrial membrane injury. Thus, HSYA might be useful as a potential therapeutic medication for treating sepsis.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion,Vol 37,No. 11
Objective To explore the protective effect of acupuncture along meridians on rats with myocardial ischemia and its effect and action mechanism on cardiomyocyte energy metabolism. Methods A total of 104 healthy 12-week-old SD rats were fed adaptively for one week and included into study with no disease symptoms observed. Of them, 24 SD rats were selected regardless of gender, and randomly divided into a blank group and a sham operation group, with 12 rats in each one. The remaining 80 SD rats were treated with ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery to establish the model of myocardial ischemia. The successful rate of model establishment was 60%, and 48 rats survived. They were randomly divided into a model group, an acupuncture along meridian group, an acupuncture along other-meridian group and an acupuncture at non-acupoint group, with 12 rats in each one. Rats in the blank group were not treated with operation, but only bundle fixation. Rats in the sham operation group were treated with sham operation (coronary artery was not ligatured). Rats in the model group were only fixed. Those in the acupuncture along meridian group were treated with electroacupuncture (EA) at “Neiguan” (PC 6), the ones in the acupuncture along other-meridian group were treated with EA at “Hegu” (LI 4), and those in the acupuncture at non-acupoint group were treated with EA at non-acupoints located in the depression of the 3rd and 4th metatarsal bones on the dorsum of rat forelimb. Each bundle fixation or EA was given for 30 min, once a day for consecutive five days. The electrocardiogram (ECG) test was conducted in all groups; The apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes was detected by Tunel; The contents of ATP, ADP and AMP in myocardium were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The ST segment voltages after model establishment were higher than those before modeling (all P < 0.05). Compared with the model group after intervention, the ST segments were elevated in the acupuncture along meridian group, acupuncture along other-meridian group and acupuncture at non-acupoint group ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05), but the apoptosis rates of cardiomyocytes were significantly reduced (all P < 0.01). Compared with the acupuncture along other-meridian group and acupuncture at non-acupoint group, the apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes in the acupuncture along meridian group was significantly decreased (both P < 0.01). Compared with the model group after intervention, the content of ATP was increased in acupuncture along meridian group ( P < 0.05); Compared with the acupuncture at non-acupoint group, the content of ATP was increased in the acupuncture along meridian group ( P < 0.05); Compared with the model group, the contents of ADP and AMP were reduced in the acupuncture along meridian group, acupuncture along other-meridian group and acupuncture at non-acupoint group (all P < 0.05); The energy charge (EC) in the acupuncture along meridian group was higher than that in the model group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture along meridians can effectively relieve the damage of cardiac muscle tissue; The possible mechanism lies in the increase of ATP, the reduction of ADP and AMP of cardiomyocytes, the elevation of EC level and the inhibition of myocardial cell apoptosis, thus exerting the protective effect on cardiac muscle tissue and cells.