China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica,Vol 41,No. 24
To investigate the chemical compounds from the fruit of Cornus officinalis, six compounds were isolated and determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis as 6'- O-acetyl-7 α- O-ethyl morroniside ( 1), (−)-isolariciresinol 3 α- O- β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2), apigenin ( 3), cirsiumaldehyde ( 4), p-coumaric acid ( 5), caffeic acid ( 6). Compound 1 was a new iridoid glucoside, and compounds 2– 4 were obtained from the Cornus genus for the first time. Compounds 2– 6 were evaluated for the viability of PC12 cells when exposed in conditions of oxygen and glucose deprivation. The MTT results showed that compound 4 increased cell viability moderately in OGD/R treated PC12 cells at concentration of 1.0 μmol·L −1.
Effect of Rhizoma Coptidis Decoction in Various Doses on Gastric Mucosa Pathological Morphology and Cam/MLCK mRNA Expression of Spleen-deficient Rats
Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Vol 44,No. 09
Objective: To observe the influence of different doses of Rhizoma Coptidis Decoction on pathological changes of gastric mucosa and CaM/MLCK mRNA expression level of smooth muscle tissue in gastric antrum of spleen-deficient rats. Methods: Sixty clean SD male rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, domperidone group, Rhizoma Coptidis high, medium and low dose groups. Spleen-deficient rat model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of reserpine for a total of 14 days. After modelling, rats of Rhizoma Coptidis groups were fed with different doses of Rhizoma Coptidis Decoction (the dosage was 5 g·kg −1, 2.5 g·kg −1, 1.25 g·kg −1, respectively). The domperidone group was fed with domperidon−e. The blank control group and model group were fed with equal volume of normal saline for another 14 days. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA level of MLCK and CaM in rat antrum smooth muscle tissues. Results: Gastric mucosa in model group showed shinking, thinning, flat ruga, interruption and edema, fat and collagen fibrous tissue proliferation. The interruption and edema in Rhizoma Coptidis high, medium and low dose groups were reduced to different extents. The degree of fat and collagen fibrous tissue proliferation was also reduced. Compared with blank control group, CaM, MLCK mRNA levels in gastric antrum smooth muscle tissue were significantly decreased in model group ( P < 0.001). Compared with model group, CaM mRNA content in Rhizoma Coptidis high, medium and low dose groups was significantly higher ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with model group, MLCK mRNA levels in domperidone group and Rhizoma Coptidis high, medium dose groups were significantly higher ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The invigorating stomach effect of Rhizoma Coptidis is implemented by protecting gastric mucosa and regulating “Ca 2+-CaM-MLCK” to increase CaM/MLCK mRNA expression in gastric mucosal tissue.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica,Vol 41,No. 14
Rheum tanguticum from the same area was divided into eight variation types according to the plant morphology, and the difference in the content of free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, and double anthrone was studied. The results showed that the functional components of different variation types were significantly different. The average contents of free anthraquinone and combined anthraquinone were 2.10–6.71 and 15.43–22.04 mg·g −1, respectively. The average content of sennoside A plus sennoside B was 32.88–42.36 mg·g −1. There was significant difference among the 10 kinds of active components, except for sennoside B and physcion-8- O-glucosides. According to the contents and proportions of functional components, it was speculated that type B and type E might be potential special medicinal germplasms for purgation and attacking food accumulation; type G and type H might be the potential special medicinal germplasms for clearing heat and removing toxin; type C and type F might be potential special medicinal germplasms for activating blood and resolving stasis; type A and type D might be potential special medicinal germplasms with astringent hemostatic funtion. The conclusion laid a solid foundation for directional cultivation of high-quality Radix et Rhizoma Rhei varieties with special purpose.
West Asia and Africa,No. 03
Israel’s high-skilled migration policies were initially promulgated mainly to accommodate high-skilled Jewish migrants from the former Soviet Union during the second half of the 20th century, especially the influx of the 1990s. In the process, a series of talent placement programs were implemented, such as Shapira Fund, Gileadi Program, KAMEA Program and Technological Incubators Program. Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the outflow of many outstanding talents, the Israeli government has implemented a series of programs, such as I-CORE, Israel National Brain Gain Program and Gvahim, to attract high-skilled overseas talents to return to Israel. Israel has been successful in implementing the high-skilled migration policies, which take “migrant absorption + R&D” as the core content. Such policies complemented Israel’s high-quality scientific and technological talents, and played a crucial role in Israel’s economic take-off; more importantly, the influx of high-skilled talents has become the key to propel Israel into the world-renowned scientific and technological innovation power since the1990s. Israel’s relevant experiences can give some inspirations for the developing countries who want to achieve innovation and development goals.
The international environments of the Middle East Countries’ development from the perspective of Marxist view of the epoch
West Asia and Africa,No. 05
The view of the epochs is the base and approach to observe and judge the epochs and changes of Middle East countries. The changes of the Middle East are the outcomes of both the internal and external factors. In history, the rise and fall of empires reflected the tendencies of Middle East regional power contrast, and the basic route of shaping international relations as well. But since modern epochs, Middle East countries’ mechanism to independently mold international relations was interrupted. Middle East international relations show the characteristics of externality, volatility and vulnerability. A study of the view of the epochs and strategies of Turkey, Iran, Egypt and Libya reveals that there were frequent mistakes and heavy lessons. The root cause is that those countries’ cognition of the epochs was negatively influenced by traditional Islamic world view. Some countries strove for impractical goals. They had weak idea of national sovereignty, and neglected national and social development. In the contemporary world of fierce competitions, the Middle East countries urgently need the reasonable view of the epochs. They should see clearly the characteristics and the directions of the epochs, and take appropriate measures. Only in this way can the Middle East countries reach lasting stability, development and prosperity.