China's Borderland History and Geography Studies,Vol 27,No. 03
During the traditional state period, frontiers are considered “a marginal land of geographical remoteness, a buffering land safeguarding the center, an impoverished land with the backward economy and a faraway land with an alien culture.” With the transformation of territorial nature and the development of traffic communication, China has gradually changed its view of frontiers from the traditional vague and uncertain notion of frontiers rather than boundaries to a modern view based on international treaties. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the Chinese government has launched massive projects to support the development of borderlands. From the impressive Third Front Movement and the influential Western Development Drive to the Belt and Road Initiative with global significance, the state has provided favorable national policies and local governments have responded actively, providing an excellent opportunity to realize leapfrog development in border areas and change their traditional image in Chinese history. The “beyond frontier” method is put forward against the historical background of the Belt and Road Initiative, globalization and modernization. Based on the development of economy, culture and society in the multi-ethnic state objectively and under the guideline of balanced development, it is proposed that frontiers be lifted to the level of a forefront of international cooperation, an expansion of national strategies and a potential point of economic growth in order to realize closer ties and better integration of different domestic regions.
Journal of Finance and Economics,Vol 43,No. 12
To increase farmers’ income and narrow the income gap between urban and rural residents in China, it is an important to realize common prosperity. However, because of the slowing-down increase in farmers’ income, some schemes should be taken to broaden income sources, tap latent potentialities and cultivate new points of income growth. With the development of industrialization and urbanization, non-farm income that exceeds agriculture income has mainly accounted for the proportion of farmers’ income. Due to the Chinese household registration system, most farmers devote themselves to part-time business to maximize income. How does the business behavior have an influence on non-agricultural income? Based on the literature review of part-time business behavior and non-farm wage income, it could be found that most studies focus on part-time business or non-farm wage income, and have no systematic review of their relationship. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of farmers’ part-time employment behavior on non-farm wage income, and aims to improve existing research and provide further research ideas. In order to achieve the above objectives, this paper puts forward two following hypotheses: Firstly, part-time business behavior would not only reduce farmers’ non-agricultural income, but also cut down hourly wage level. Secondly, individual characteristics, career choices and part-time business behavior would be factors that play the important roles in farmers’ non-farm wage income. Moreover, the part-time business behavior is the main factor that causes wage income gap between farmers with combined occupations and farmers who only are busy with non-agricultural jobs. Then, according to China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2012, this paper empirically studies these effects by using treatment effects model and income decomposition method. Results show that part-time business would significantly reduce farmers’ wage income and actual hourly wages. In addition, it shows that the discrimination effect caused by part-time behavior is the main reason for non-farm income gap between farmers with combined occupations and ones who only are busy with non-agricultural jobs. Therefore, the implementation of policies to promote farmers’ income should be aimed at improving policy accuracy, such as striving to break institutional constraints represented the household registration system, encouraging farmers to transfer to non-agricultural sectors, and deepening supply-side agricultural reform to improve the land property income and increase farmers’ gross income.
Chinese Journal of European Studies,Vol 35,No. 06
Globalization is a historical process in which products, capital, services and persons move and ideas and norms spread across borders, which mainly consists of economic, political, social and demographic dimensions. To the Western Europeans, economic globalization brings cheap products and services while widening the gap between the rich and poor and causing severe job losses. Political globalization provides a variety of international public goods while incurring moderate monetary and life costs. Societal globalization consolidates European centralism and cultural superiority, while posing threats to cultural and physical safety. At last, population globalization reduces living costs at the cost of national security and leads to massive welfare spending. Overall, globalization has decreased the life satisfaction of the Western Europeans. The mixed level ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions and subsequent robustness test based on data from European Social Survey (2002–2014) provide sound empirical evidence to hypotheses in this paper. That is, globalization as a whole, and especially that in the economic, societal and population areas, has reduced the subjective well-being of the Western Europeans, whereas political globalization has not increased their happiness. Additionally, the European integration has significantly promoted the quality of life of the citizens in Western Europe, which provides not only an important impetus to globalization but also a protection belt against the negative externalities of globalization.
Elite capture of rural credit market in China: stratified comparison between poor and non-poor counties
Economic Research Journal,Vol 51,No. 02
Providing credit fund to rural residents needs to look into the main body that is usually controlled by elites with low transaction costs. In the long term, the behavior of elites deviates from the overall interests, and “elite capture” mechanism is developed in rural credit market. This paper conducts an empirical research based on the data of the questionnaires survey from 10 provincial administrative regions in China, to study the “elite capture” mechanism of rural credit market via the 2SLS model and IVQR model. The results showed that the “elite capture” mechanism in non-poor counties is significantly different from that of poor counties. “Elite capture” mechanism of rural credit market in poor counties has not been formed completely. In contrast to non-poor counties where “elite capture” mechanism is widely distributed over rural credit market, leading to structure distortions, function dislocation and target deviation. It is necessary to establish an inclusive financial system to break the existing configuration, to ensure fair transfer of funds and to establish a co-development mechanism.
The Journal of World Economy,Vol 40,No. 09
This paper discusses the general equilibrium approach of indirect tax incidence. The authors assume the indirect tax incidence of households includes both the sources-side and the uses-side of income. Based on a theoretical analysis of the indirect tax incidence mechanism, we further construct a computable general equilibrium model to measure the main indirect taxes on the rural and urban households for different income groups for 2010 data. The tax incidence in the entire population, including urban and rural households, is U-shaped, and the incidence of rural households is heavier than that of urban households. Moreover, the influence of the sources-side tax incidence is greater than that of the uses-side one; therefore, the progressivity of entire tax incidence is closer to the sources-side one. The gap of income and expenditure pattern among households plays a vital role in the change of progressivity of tax incidence. In addition, factor substitution elasticity has negative impact on sources-side tax incidence and on its progressivity, yet affects uses-side tax incidence positively.